🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 3 matches in 0.001469s)
  1. Segmentation of Biomedical Images by a Computational Topology Framework (2017)

    Rodrigo Rojas Moraleda, Wei Xiong, Niels Halama, Katja Breitkopf-Heinlein, Steven Steven, Luis Salinas, Dieter W. Heermann, Nektarios A. Valous
    Abstract The segmentation of cell nuclei is an important step towards the automated analysis of histological images. The presence of a large number of nuclei in whole-slide images necessitates methods that are computationally tractable in addition to being effective. In this work, a method is developed for the robust segmentation of cell nuclei in histological images based on the principles of persistent homology. More specifically, an abstract simplicial homology approach for image segmentation is established. Essentially, the approach deals with the persistence of disconnected sets in the image, thus identifying salient regions that express patterns of persistence. By introducing an image representation based on topological features, the task of segmentation is less dependent on variations of color or texture. This results in a novel approach that generalizes well and provides stable performance. The method conceptualizes regions of interest (cell nuclei) pertinent to their topological features in a successful manner. The time cost of the proposed approach is lower-bounded by an almost linear behavior and upper-bounded by O(n2) in a worst-case scenario. Time complexity matches a quasilinear behavior which is O(n1+ɛ) for ε \textless 1. Images acquired from histological sections of liver tissue are used as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The histological landscape consists of hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells. The accuracy of the proposed methodology is verified against an automated workflow created by the output of a conventional filter bank (validated by experts) and the supervised training of a random forest classifier. The results are obtained on a per-object basis. The proposed workflow successfully detected both hepatocyte and non-parenchymal cell nuclei with an accuracy of 84.6%, and hepatocyte cell nuclei only with an accuracy of 86.2%. A public histological dataset with supplied ground-truth data is also used for evaluating the performance of the proposed approach (accuracy: 94.5%). Further validations are carried out with a publicly available dataset and ground-truth data from the Gland Segmentation in Colon Histology Images Challenge (GlaS) contest. The proposed method is useful for obtaining unsupervised robust initial segmentations that can be further integrated in image/data processing and management pipelines. The development of a fully automated system supporting a human expert provides tangible benefits in the context of clinical decision-making.
  2. Multidimensional Persistence in Biomolecular Data (2015)

    Kelin Xia, Guo-Wei Wei
    Abstract Persistent homology has emerged as a popular technique for the topological simplification of big data, including biomolecular data. Multidimensional persistence bears considerable promise to bridge the gap between geometry and topology. However, its practical and robust construction has been a challenge. We introduce two families of multidimensional persistence, namely pseudo-multidimensional persistence and multiscale multidimensional persistence. The former is generated via the repeated applications of persistent homology filtration to high dimensional data, such as results from molecular dynamics or partial differential equations. The latter is constructed via isotropic and anisotropic scales that create new simiplicial complexes and associated topological spaces. The utility, robustness and efficiency of the proposed topological methods are demonstrated via protein folding, protein flexibility analysis, the topological denoising of cryo-electron microscopy data, and the scale dependence of nano particles. Topological transition between partial folded and unfolded proteins has been observed in multidimensional persistence. The separation between noise topological signatures and molecular topological fingerprints is achieved by the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The multiscale multidimensional persistent homology reveals relative local features in Betti-0 invariants and the relatively global characteristics of Betti-1 and Betti-2 invariants.
  3. Persistent Topology for Cryo-Em Data Analysis (2015)

    Kelin Xia, Guo-Wei Wei
    Abstract SummaryIn this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is topologically favored. The present work offers persistent homology based new strategies for topological denoising and for resolving ill-posed inverse problems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.