🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 6 matches in 0.002278s)
  1. Tree Decomposition of Reeb Graphs, Parametrized Complexity, and Applications to Phylogenetics (2020)

    Anastasios Stefanou
    Abstract Inspired by the interval decomposition of persistence modules and the extended Newick format of phylogenetic networks, we show that, inside the larger category of partially ordered Reeb graphs, every Reeb graph with n leaves and first Betti number s, can be identified with a coproduct of at most \$\$2\textasciicircums\$\$2s partially ordered trees with \$\$(n + s)\$\$(n+s) leaves. Reeb graphs are therefore classified up to isomorphism by their tree-decomposition. An implication of this result, is that the isomorphism problem for Reeb graphs is fixed parameter tractable when the parameter is the first Betti number. We propose partially ordered Reeb graphs as a model for time consistent phylogenetic networks and propose a certain Hausdorff distance as a metric on these structures.
  2. Quantifying Genetic Innovation: Mathematical Foundations for the Topological Study of Reticulate Evolution (2020)

    Michael Lesnick, Raúl Rabadán, Daniel I. S. Rosenbloom
    Abstract A topological approach to the study of genetic recombination, based on persistent homology, was introduced by Chan, Carlsson, and Rabadán in 2013. This associates a sequence of signatures called barcodes to genomic data sampled from an evolutionary history. In this paper, we develop theoretical foundations for this approach. First, we present a novel formulation of the underlying inference problem. Specifically, we introduce and study the novelty profile, a simple, stable statistic of an evolutionary history which not only counts recombination events but also quantifies how recombination creates genetic diversity. We propose that the (hitherto implicit) goal of the topological approach to recombination is the estimation of novelty profiles. We then study the problem of obtaining a lower bound on the novelty profile using barcodes. We focus on a low-recombination regime, where the evolutionary history can be described by a directed acyclic graph called a galled tree, which differs from a tree only by isolated topological defects. We show that in this regime, under a complete sampling assumption, the \$1\textasciicircum\mathrm\st\\$ barcode yields a lower bound on the novelty profile, and hence on the number of recombination events. For \$i\textgreater1\$, the \$i\textasciicircum\\mathrm\th\\\$ barcode is empty. In addition, we use a stability principle to strengthen these results to ones which hold for any subsample of an arbitrary evolutionary history. To establish these results, we describe the topology of the Vietoris--Rips filtrations arising from evolutionary histories indexed by galled trees. As a step towards a probabilistic theory, we also show that for a random history indexed by a fixed galled tree and satisfying biologically reasonable conditions, the intervals of the \$1\textasciicircum\\mathrm\st\\\$ barcode are independent random variables. Using simulations, we explore the sensitivity of these intervals to recombination.
  3. Topological Data Analysis as a Morphometric Method: Using Persistent Homology to Demarcate a Leaf Morphospace (2018)

    Mao Li, Hong An, Ruthie Angelovici, Clement Bagaza, Albert Batushansky, Lynn Clark, Viktoriya Coneva, Michael J. Donoghue, Erika Edwards, Diego Fajardo, Hui Fang, Margaret H. Frank, Timothy Gallaher, Sarah Gebken, Theresa Hill, Shelley Jansky, Baljinder Kaur, Phillip C. Klahs, Laura L. Klein, Vasu Kuraparthy, Jason Londo, Zoë Migicovsky, Allison Miller, Rebekah Mohn, Sean Myles, Wagner C. Otoni, J. C. Pires, Edmond Rieffer, Sam Schmerler, Elizabeth Spriggs, Christopher N. Topp, Allen Van Deynze, Kuang Zhang, Linglong Zhu, Braden M. Zink, Daniel H. Chitwood
    Abstract Current morphometric methods that comprehensively measure shape cannot compare the disparate leaf shapes found in seed plants and are sensitive to processing artifacts. We explore the use of persistent homology, a topological method applied as a filtration across simplicial complexes (or more simply, a method to measure topological features of spaces across different spatial resolutions), to overcome these limitations. The described method isolates subsets of shape features and measures the spatial relationship of neighboring pixel densities in a shape. We apply the method to the analysis of 182,707 leaves, both published and unpublished, representing 141 plant families collected from 75 sites throughout the world. By measuring leaves from throughout the seed plants using persistent homology, a defined morphospace comparing all leaves is demarcated. Clear differences in shape between major phylogenetic groups are detected and estimates of leaf shape diversity within plant families are made. The approach predicts plant family above chance. The application of a persistent homology method, using topological features, to measure leaf shape allows for a unified morphometric framework to measure plant form, including shapes, textures, patterns, and branching architectures.
  4. Inference of Ancestral Recombination Graphs Through Topological Data Analysis (2016)

    Pablo G. Cámara, Arnold J. Levine, Raúl Rabadán
    Abstract The recent explosion of genomic data has underscored the need for interpretable and comprehensive analyses that can capture complex phylogenetic relationships within and across species. Recombination, reassortment and horizontal gene transfer constitute examples of pervasive biological phenomena that cannot be captured by tree-like representations. Starting from hundreds of genomes, we are interested in the reconstruction of potential evolutionary histories leading to the observed data. Ancestral recombination graphs represent potential histories that explicitly accommodate recombination and mutation events across orthologous genomes. However, they are computationally costly to reconstruct, usually being infeasible for more than few tens of genomes. Recently, Topological Data Analysis (TDA) methods have been proposed as robust and scalable methods that can capture the genetic scale and frequency of recombination. We build upon previous TDA developments for detecting and quantifying recombination, and present a novel framework that can be applied to hundreds of genomes and can be interpreted in terms of minimal histories of mutation and recombination events, quantifying the scales and identifying the genomic locations of recombinations. We implement this framework in a software package, called TARGet, and apply it to several examples, including small migration between different populations, human recombination, and horizontal evolution in finches inhabiting the Galápagos Islands., Evolution occurs through different mechanisms, including point mutations, gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, and recombinations. Some of these mechanisms cannot be captured by tree graphs. We present a framework, based on the mathematical tools of computational topology, that can explicitly accommodate both recombination and mutation events across the evolutionary history of a sample of genomic sequences. This approach generates a new type of summary graph and algebraic structures that provide quantitative information on the evolutionary scale and frequency of recombination events. The accompanying software, TARGet, is applied to several examples, including migration between sexually-reproducing populations, human recombination, and recombination in Darwin’s finches.
  5. Fruit Flies and Moduli: Interactions Between Biology and Mathematics (2015)

    Ezra Miller
    Abstract Possibilities for using geometry and topology to analyze statistical problems in biology raise a host of novel questions in geometry, probability, algebra, and combinatorics that demonstrate the power of biology to influence the future of pure mathematics. This expository article is a tour through some biological explorations and their mathematical ramifications. The article starts with evolution of novel topological features in wing veins of fruit flies, which are quantified using the algebraic structure of multiparameter persistent homology. The statistical issues involved highlight mathematical implications of sampling from moduli spaces. These lead to geometric probability on stratified spaces, including the sticky phenomenon for Frechet means and the origin of this mathematical area in the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees.
  6. Topology of Viral Evolution (2013)

    Joseph Minhow Chan, Gunnar Carlsson, Raul Rabadan
    Abstract The tree structure is currently the accepted paradigm to represent evolutionary relationships between organisms, species or other taxa. However, horizontal, or reticulate, genomic exchanges are pervasive in nature and confound characterization of phylogenetic trees. Drawing from algebraic topology, we present a unique evolutionary framework that comprehensively captures both clonal and reticulate evolution. We show that whereas clonal evolution can be summarized as a tree, reticulate evolution exhibits nontrivial topology of dimension greater than zero. Our method effectively characterizes clonal evolution, reassortment, and recombination in RNA viruses. Beyond detecting reticulate evolution, we succinctly recapitulate the history of complex genetic exchanges involving more than two parental strains, such as the triple reassortment of H7N9 avian influenza and the formation of circulating HIV-1 recombinants. In addition, we identify recurrent, large-scale patterns of reticulate evolution, including frequent PB2-PB1-PA-NP cosegregation during avian influenza reassortment. Finally, we bound the rate of reticulate events (i.e., 20 reassortments per year in avian influenza). Our method provides an evolutionary perspective that not only captures reticulate events precluding phylogeny, but also indicates the evolutionary scales where phylogenetic inference could be accurate.