🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 6 matches in 0.001165s)
  1. Capturing Shape Information With Multi-Scale Topological Loss Terms For 3D Reconstruction (2022)

    Dominik J. E. Waibel, Scott Atwell, Matthias Meier, Carsten Marr, Bastian Rieck
    Abstract Reconstructing 3D objects from 2D images is both challenging for our brains and machine learning algorithms. To support this spatial reasoning task, contextual information about the overall shape of an object is critical. However, such information is not captured by established loss terms (e.g. Dice loss). We propose to complement geometrical shape information by including multi-scale topological features, such as connected components, cycles, and voids, in the reconstruction loss. Our method uses cubical complexes to calculate topological features of 3D volume data and employs an optimal transport distance to guide the reconstruction process. This topology-aware loss is fully differentiable, computationally efficient, and can be added to any neural network. We demonstrate the utility of our loss by incorporating it into SHAPR, a model for predicting the 3D cell shape of individual cells based on 2D microscopy images. Using a hybrid loss that leverages both geometrical and topological information of single objects to assess their shape, we find that topological information substantially improves the quality of reconstructions, thus highlighting its ability to extract more relevant features from image datasets.
  2. The Euler Characteristic: A General Topological Descriptor for Complex Data (2021)

    Alexander Smith, Victor Zavala
    Abstract Datasets are mathematical objects (e.g., point clouds, matrices, graphs, images, fields/functions) that have shape. This shape encodes important knowledge about the system under study. Topology is an area of mathematics that provides diverse tools to characterize the shape of data objects. In this work, we study a specific tool known as the Euler characteristic (EC). The EC is a general, low-dimensional, and interpretable descriptor of topological spaces defined by data objects. We revise the mathematical foundations of the EC and highlight its connections with statistics, linear algebra, field theory, and graph theory. We discuss advantages offered by the use of the EC in the characterization of complex datasets; to do so, we illustrate its use in different applications of interest in chemical engineering such as process monitoring, flow cytometry, and microscopy. We show that the EC provides a descriptor that effectively reduces complex datasets and that this reduction facilitates tasks such as visualization, regression, classification, and clustering.
  3. Topological Data Analysis Quantifies Biological Nano-Structure From Single Molecule Localization Microscopy (2020)

    Jeremy A. Pike, Abdullah O. Khan, Chiara Pallini, Steven G. Thomas, Markus Mund, Jonas Ries, Natalie S. Poulter, Iain B. Styles
    Abstract AbstractMotivation. Localization microscopy data is represented by a set of spatial coordinates, each corresponding to a single detection, that form a point cl
  4. Persistent Homology to Quantify the Quality of Surface-Supported Covalent Networks (2019)

    Abraham Gutierrez, Mickaël Buchet, Sylvain Clair
    Abstract Covalent networks formed by on-surface synthesis usually suffer from the presence of a large number of defects. We report on a methodology to characterize such two-dimensional networks from their experimental images obtained by scanning probe microscopy. The computation is based on a persistent homology approach and provides a quantitative score indicative of the network homogeneity. We compare our scoring method with results previously obtained using minimal spanning tree analyses and we apply it to some molecular systems appearing in the existing literature.
  5. Using Persistent Homology as a New Approach for Super-Resolution Localization Microscopy Data Analysis and Classification of γH2AX Foci/Clusters (2018)

    Andreas Hofmann, Matthias Krufczik, Dieter W. Heermann, Michael Hausmann
    Abstract DNA double strand breaks (DSB) are the most severe damages in chromatin induced by ionizing radiation. In response to such environmentally determined stress situations, cells have developed repair mechanisms. Although many investigations have contributed to a detailed understanding of repair processes, e.g., homologous recombination repair or non-homologous end-joining, the question is not sufficiently answered, how a cell decides to apply a certain repair process at a certain damage site, since all different repair pathways could simultaneously occur in the same cell nucleus. One of the first processes after DSB induction is phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX to γH2AX in the given surroundings of the damaged locus. Since the spatial organization of chromatin is not random, it may be conclusive that the spatial organization of γH2AX foci is also not random, and rather, contributes to accessibility of special repair proteins to the damaged site, and thus, to the following repair pathway at this given site. The aim of this article is to demonstrate a new approach to analyze repair foci by their topology in order to obtain a cell independent method of categorization. During the last decade, novel super-resolution fluorescence light microscopic techniques have enabled new insights into genome structure and spatial organization on the nano-scale in the order of 10 nm. One of these techniques is single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) with which the spatial coordinates of single fluorescence molecules can precisely be determined and density and distance distributions can be calculated. This method is an appropriate tool to quantify complex changes of chromatin and to describe repair foci on the single molecule level. Based on the pointillist information obtained by SMLM from specifically labeled heterochromatin and γH2AX foci reflecting the chromatin morphology and repair foci topology, we have developed a new analytical methodology of foci or foci cluster characterization, respectively, by means of persistence homology. This method allows, for the first time, a cell independent comparison of two point distributions (here the point distributions of two γH2AX clusters) with each other of a selected ensample and to give a mathematical measure of their similarity. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, cells were irradiated by low LET (linear energy transfer) radiation with different doses and the heterochromatin and γH2AX foci were fluorescently labeled by antibodies for SMLM. By means of our new analysis method, we were able to show that the topology of clusters of γH2AX foci can be categorized depending on the distance to heterochromatin. This method opens up new possibilities to categorize spatial organization of point patterns by parameterization of topological similarity.
  6. Persistent Topology for Cryo-Em Data Analysis (2015)

    Kelin Xia, Guo-Wei Wei
    Abstract SummaryIn this work, we introduce persistent homology for the analysis of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. We identify the topological fingerprint or topological signature of noise, which is widespread in cryo-EM data. For low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) volumetric data, intrinsic topological features of biomolecular structures are indistinguishable from noise. To remove noise, we employ geometric flows that are found to preserve the intrinsic topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures and diminish the topological signature of noise. In particular, persistent homology enables us to visualize the gradual separation of the topological fingerprints of cryo-EM structures from those of noise during the denoising process, which gives rise to a practical procedure for prescribing a noise threshold to extract cryo-EM structure information from noise contaminated data after certain iterations of the geometric flow equation. To further demonstrate the utility of persistent homology for cryo-EM data analysis, we consider a microtubule intermediate structure Electron Microscopy Data (EMD 1129). Three helix models, an alpha-tubulin monomer model, an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin model, and an alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin dimer model, are constructed to fit the cryo-EM data. The least square fitting leads to similarly high correlation coefficients, which indicates that structure determination via optimization is an ill-posed inverse problem. However, these models have dramatically different topological fingerprints. Especially, linkages or connectivities that discriminate one model from another, play little role in the traditional density fitting or optimization but are very sensitive and crucial to topological fingerprints. The intrinsic topological features of the microtubule data are identified after topological denoising. By a comparison of the topological fingerprints of the original data and those of three models, we found that the third model is topologically favored. The present work offers persistent homology based new strategies for topological denoising and for resolving ill-posed inverse problems. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.