🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 8 matches in 0.00147s)
  1. Topological Data Analysis Distinguishes Parameter Regimes in the Anderson-Chaplain Model of Angiogenesis (2021)

    John T. Nardini, Bernadette J. Stolz, Kevin B. Flores, Heather A. Harrington, Helen M. Byrne
    Abstract Angiogenesis is the process by which blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. It plays a key role in many biological processes, including embryonic development and wound healing, and contributes to many diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The structure of the resulting vessel networks determines their ability to deliver nutrients and remove waste products from biological tissues. Here we simulate the Anderson-Chaplain model of angiogenesis at different parameter values and quantify the vessel architectures of the resulting synthetic data. Specifically, we propose a topological data analysis (TDA) pipeline for systematic analysis of the model. TDA is a vibrant and relatively new field of computational mathematics for studying the shape of data. We compute topological and standard descriptors of model simulations generated by different parameter values. We show that TDA of model simulation data stratifies parameter space into regions with similar vessel morphology. The methodologies proposed here are widely applicable to other synthetic and experimental data including wound healing, development, and plant biology.
  2. Localization in the Crowd With Topological Constraints (2020)

    Shahira Abousamra, Minh Hoai, Dimitris Samaras, Chao Chen
    Abstract We address the problem of crowd localization, i.e., the prediction of dots corresponding to people in a crowded scene. Due to various challenges, a localization method is prone to spatial semantic errors, i.e., predicting multiple dots within a same person or collapsing multiple dots in a cluttered region. We propose a topological approach targeting these semantic errors. We introduce a topological constraint that teaches the model to reason about the spatial arrangement of dots. To enforce this constraint, we define a persistence loss based on the theory of persistent homology. The loss compares the topographic landscape of the likelihood map and the topology of the ground truth. Topological reasoning improves the quality of the localization algorithm especially near cluttered regions. On multiple public benchmarks, our method outperforms previous localization methods. Additionally, we demonstrate the potential of our method in improving the performance in the crowd counting task.
  3. RGB Image-Based Data Analysis via Discrete Morse Theory and Persistent Homology (2018)

    Chuan Du, Christopher Szul, Adarsh Manawa, Nima Rasekh, Rosemary Guzman, Ruth Davidson
    Abstract Understanding and comparing images for the purposes of data analysis is currently a very computationally demanding task. A group at Australian National University (ANU) recently developed open-source code that can detect fundamental topological features of a grayscale image in a computationally feasible manner. This is made possible by the fact that computers store grayscale images as cubical cellular complexes. These complexes can be studied using the techniques of discrete Morse theory. We expand the functionality of the ANU code by introducing methods and software for analyzing images encoded in red, green, and blue (RGB), because this image encoding is very popular for publicly available data. Our methods allow the extraction of key topological information from RGB images via informative persistence diagrams by introducing novel methods for transforming RGB-to-grayscale. This paradigm allows us to perform data analysis directly on RGB images representing water scarcity variability as well as crime variability. We introduce software enabling a a user to predict future image properties, towards the eventual aim of more rapid image-based data behavior prediction.
  4. Topological Data Analysis and Diagnostics of Compressible Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence (2018)

    Irina Makarenko, Paul Bushby, Andrew Fletcher, Robin Henderson, Nikolay Makarenko, Anvar Shukurov
    Abstract The predictions of mean-field electrodynamics can now be probed using direct numerical simulations of random flows and magnetic fields. When modelling astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics, it is important to verify that such simulations are in agreement with observations. One of the main challenges in this area is to identify robust quantitative measures to compare structures found in simulations with those inferred from astrophysical observations. A similar challenge is to compare quantitatively results from different simulations. Topological data analysis offers a range of techniques, including the Betti numbers and persistence diagrams, that can be used to facilitate such a comparison. After describing these tools, we first apply them to synthetic random fields and demonstrate that, when the data are standardized in a straightforward manner, some topological measures are insensitive to either large-scale trends or the resolution of the data. Focusing upon one particular astrophysical example, we apply topological data analysis to H i observations of the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way and to recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the random, strongly compressible ISM. We stress that these topological techniques are generic and could be applied to any complex, multi-dimensional random field.
  5. A Morphometric Analysis of Vegetation Patterns in Dryland Ecosystems (2017)

    Luke Mander, Stefan C. Dekker, Mao Li, Washington Mio, Surangi W. Punyasena, Timothy M. Lenton
    Abstract Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems. In this paper, we have developed quantitative methods to characterize the morphology of spatial patterns in dryland vegetation. Our approach is based on algorithmic techniques that have been used to classify pollen grains on the basis of textural patterning, and involves constructing feature vectors to quantify the shapes formed by vegetation patterns. We have analysed images of patterned vegetation produced by a computational model and a small set of satellite images from South Kordofan (South Sudan), which illustrates that our methods are applicable to both simulated and real-world data. Our approach provides a means of quantifying patterns that are frequently described using qualitative terminology, and could be used to classify vegetation patterns in large-scale satellite surveys of dryland ecosystems.
  6. Theory and Algorithms for Constructing Discrete Morse Complexes From Grayscale Digital Images (2011)

    V. Robins, P. J. Wood, A. P. Sheppard
    Abstract We present an algorithm for determining the Morse complex of a two or three-dimensional grayscale digital image. Each cell in the Morse complex corresponds to a topological change in the level sets (i.e., a critical point) of the grayscale image. Since more than one critical point may be associated with a single image voxel, we model digital images by cubical complexes. A new homotopic algorithm is used to construct a discrete Morse function on the cubical complex that agrees with the digital image and has exactly the number and type of critical cells necessary to characterize the topological changes in the level sets. We make use of discrete Morse theory and simple homotopy theory to prove correctness of this algorithm. The resulting Morse complex is considerably simpler than the cubical complex originally used to represent the image and may be used to compute persistent homology.
  7. Persistent Betti Numbers for a Noise Tolerant Shape-Based Approach to Image Retrieval (2011)

    Patrizio Frosini, Claudia Landi
    Abstract In content-based image retrieval a major problem is the presence of noisy shapes. It is well known that persistent Betti numbers are a shape descriptor that admits a dissimilarity distance, the matching distance, stable under continuous shape deformations. In this paper we focus on the problem of dealing with noise that changes the topology of the studied objects. We present a general method to turn persistent Betti numbers into stable descriptors also in the presence of topological changes. Retrieval tests on the Kimia-99 database show the effectiveness of the method.
  8. A Mayer–Vietoris Formula for Persistent Homology With an Application to Shape Recognition in the Presence of Occlusions (2011)

    Barbara Di Fabio, Claudia Landi
    Abstract In algebraic topology it is well known that, using the Mayer–Vietoris sequence, the homology of a space X can be studied by splitting X into subspaces A and B and computing the homology of A, B, and A∩B. A natural question is: To what extent does persistent homology benefit from a similar property? In this paper we show that persistent homology has a Mayer–Vietoris sequence that is generally not exact but only of order 2. However, we obtain a Mayer–Vietoris formula involving the ranks of the persistent homology groups of X, A, B, and A∩B plus three extra terms. This implies that persistent homological features of A and B can be found either as persistent homological features of X or of A∩B. As an application of this result, we show that persistence diagrams are able to recognize an occluded shape by showing a common subset of points.