🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 16 matches in 0.002252s)
  1. Statistical Inference for Persistent Homology Applied to Simulated fMRI Time Series Data (2023)

    Hassan Abdallah, Adam Regalski, Mohammad Behzad Kang, Maria Berishaj, Nkechi Nnadi, Asadur Chowdury, Vaibhav A. Diwadkar, Andrew Salch
    Abstract Time-series data are amongst the most widely-used in biomedical sciences, including domains such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Structure within time series data can be captured by the tools of topological data analysis (TDA). Persistent homology is the mostly commonly used data-analytic tool in TDA, and can effectively summarize complex high-dimensional data into an interpretable 2-dimensional representation called a persistence diagram. Existing methods for statistical inference for persistent homology of data depend on an independence assumption being satisfied. While persistent homology can be computed for each time index in a time-series, time-series data often fail to satisfy the independence assumption. This paper develops a statistical test that obviates the independence assumption by implementing a multi-level block sampled Monte Carlo test with sets of persistence diagrams. Its efficacy for detecting task-dependent topological organization is then demonstrated on simulated fMRI data. This new statistical test is therefore suitable for analyzing persistent homology of fMRI data, and of non-independent data in general.
  2. Homological Scaffold via Minimal Homology Bases (2021)

    Marco Guerra, Alessandro De Gregorio, Ulderico Fugacci, Giovanni Petri, Francesco Vaccarino
    Abstract The homological scaffold leverages persistent homology to construct a topologically sound summary of a weighted network. However, its crucial dependency on the choice of representative cycles hinders the ability to trace back global features onto individual network components, unless one provides a principled way to make such a choice. In this paper, we apply recent advances in the computation of minimal homology bases to introduce a quasi-canonical version of the scaffold, called minimal, and employ it to analyze data both real and in silico. At the same time, we verify that, statistically, the standard scaffold is a good proxy of the minimal one for sufficiently complex networks.
  3. Development of the Functional Connectome Topology in Adolescence: Evidence From Topological Data Analysis (2021)

    Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Juan Carlos Díaz-Patiño, Isaac Arelio, Martha Beatriz Moreno, Fernando A. Barrios, Sarael Alcauter
    Abstract Adolescence is a crucial developmental period in terms of behavior and mental health. Therefore, understanding how the brain develops during this stage is a fundamental challenge for neuroscience. Recent studies have modelled the brain as a network or connectome, mainly applying measures from graph theory, showing a change in its functional organization such as an increase in its segregation and integration. Topological Data Analysis (TDA) complements such modelling by extracting high-dimensional features across the whole range of connectivity values, instead of exploring a fixed set of connections. This study enquiries into the developmental trajectories of such properties using a longitudinal sample of typically developing participants (N = 98; 53/45 F/M; 6.7-18.1 years), applying TDA into their functional connectomes. In addition, we explore the effect of puberty on the individual developmental trajectories. Results showed that compared to random networks, the adolescent brain is more segregated at the global level, but more densely connected at the local level. Furthermore, developmental effects showed nonlinear trajectories for the integration of the whole brain and fronto-parietal networks, with an inflection point and increasing trajectories after puberty onset. These results add to the insights in the development of the functional organization of the adolescent. Significance Statement Topological Data Analysis may be used to explore the topology of the brain along the whole range of connectivity values instead of selecting only a fixed set of connectivity thresholds. Here, we explored some properties of the topology of the brain functional connectome, and how they develop in adolescence. First, we show that developmental trajectories are nonlinear and better explained by the puberty status than chronological age, with an inflection point around the puberty onset. The greatest effect is the increase in functional integration for the whole brain, and particularly for the Fronto-Parietal Network when exploring functional subnetworks.
  4. Uncovering the Topology of Time-Varying fMRI Data Using Cubical Persistence (2020)

    Bastian Rieck, Tristan Yates, Christian Bock, Karsten Borgwardt, Guy Wolf, Nicholas Turk-Browne, Smita Krishnaswamy
    Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a crucial technology for gaining insights into cognitive processes in humans. Data amassed from fMRI measurements result in volumetric data sets that vary over time. However, analysing such data presents a challenge due to the large degree of noise and person-to-person variation in how information is represented in the brain. To address this challenge, we present a novel topological approach that encodes each time point in an fMRI data set as a persistence diagram of topological features, i.e. high-dimensional voids present in the data. This representation naturally does not rely on voxel-by-voxel correspondence and is robust to noise. We show that these time-varying persistence diagrams can be clustered to find meaningful groupings between participants, and that they are also useful in studying within-subject brain state trajectories of subjects performing a particular task. Here, we apply both clustering and trajectory analysis techniques to a group of participants watching the movie 'Partly Cloudy'. We observe significant differences in both brain state trajectories and overall topological activity between adults and children watching the same movie.
  5. Topological Data Analysis Reveals Robust Alterations in the Whole-Brain and Frontal Lobe Functional Connectomes in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (2020)

    Zeus Gracia-Tabuenca, Juan Carlos Díaz-Patiño, Isaac Arelio, Sarael Alcauter
    Abstract Visual Abstract \textlessimg class="highwire-fragment fragment-image" alt="Figure" src="https://www.eneuro.org/content/eneuro/7/3/ENEURO.0543-19.2020/F1.medium.gif" width="369" height="440"/\textgreaterDownload figureOpen in new tabDownload powerpoint Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder characterized by difficulty to control the own behavior. Neuroimaging studies have related ADHD with the interplay of fronto-parietal attention systems with the default mode network (DMN; Castellanos and Aoki, 2016). However, some results have been inconsistent, potentially due to methodological differences in the analytical strategies when defining the brain functional network, i.e., the functional connectivity threshold and/or the brain parcellation scheme. Here, we make use of topological data analysis (TDA) to explore the brain connectome as a function of the filtration value (i.e., the connectivity threshold), instead of using a static connectivity threshold. Specifically, we characterized the transition from all nodes being isolated to being connected into a single component as a function of the filtration value. We explored the utility of such a method to identify differences between 81 children with ADHD (45 male, age: 7.26–17.61 years old) and 96 typically developing children (TDC; 59 male, age: 7.17–17.96 years old), using a public dataset of resting state (rs)fMRI in human subjects. Results were highly congruent when using four different brain segmentations (atlases), and exhibited significant differences for the brain topology of children with ADHD, both at the whole-brain network and the functional subnetwork levels, particularly involving the frontal lobe and the DMN. Therefore, this is a solid approach that complements connectomics-related methods and may contribute to identify the neurophysio-pathology of ADHD.
  6. Topological Gene Expression Networks Recapitulate Brain Anatomy and Function (2019)

    Alice Patania, Pierluigi Selvaggi, Mattia Veronese, Ottavia Dipasquale, Paul Expert, Giovanni Petri
    Abstract Understanding how gene expression translates to and affects human behavior is one of the ultimate goals of neuroscience. In this paper, we present a pipeline based on Mapper, a topological simplification tool, to analyze gene co-expression data. We first validate the method by reproducing key results from the literature on the Allen Human Brain Atlas and the correlations between resting-state fMRI and gene co-expression maps. We then analyze a dopamine-related gene set and find that co-expression networks produced by Mapper return a structure that matches the well-known anatomy of the dopaminergic pathway. Our results suggest that network based descriptions can be a powerful tool to explore the relationships between genetic pathways and their association with brain function and its perturbation due to illness and/or pharmacological challenges., In this paper, we described a gene co-expression analysis pipeline that produces networks that we show to be closely related to either brain function and to neurotransmitter pathways. Our results suggest that this pipeline could be developed into a platform enabling the exploration of the effects of physiological and pathological alterations to specific gene sets, including profiling drugs effects.
  7. Connectivity in fMRI: Blind Spots and Breakthroughs (2018)

    Victor Solo, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Martin A. Lindquist, Sean L. Simpson, F. DuBois Bowman, Moo K. Chung, Ben Cassidy
    Abstract In recent years, driven by scientific and clinical concerns, there has been an increased interest in the analysis of functional brain networks. The goal of these analyses is to better understand how brain regions interact, how this depends upon experimental conditions and behavioral measures and how anomalies (disease) can be recognized. In this work we provide, firstly, a brief review of some of the main existing methods of functional brain network analysis. But rather than compare them, as a traditional review would do, instead, we draw attention to their significant limitations and blind spots. Then, secondly, relevant experts, sketch a number of emerging methods, which can break through these limitations. In particular we discuss five such methods. The first two, stochastic block models and exponential random graph models, provide an inferential basis for network analysis lacking in the exploratory graph analysis methods. The other three address: network comparison via persistent homology, time-varying connectivity that distinguishes sample fluctuations from neural fluctuations and, network system identification that draws inferential strength from temporal autocorrelation.
  8. What Can Topology Tell Us About the Neural Code? (2017)

    Carina Curto
    Abstract Neuroscience is undergoing a period of rapid experimental progress and expansion. New mathematical tools, previously unknown in the neuroscience community, are now being used to tackle fundamental questions and analyze emerging data sets. Consistent with this trend, the last decade has seen an uptick in the use of topological ideas and methods in neuroscience. In this paper I will survey recent applications of topology in neuroscience, and explain why topology is an especially natural tool for understanding neural codes.
  9. Persistent Homology of Time-Dependent Functional Networks Constructed From Coupled Time Series (2017)

    Bernadette J. Stolz, Heather A. Harrington, Mason A. Porter
    Abstract We use topological data analysis to study “functional networks” that we construct from time-series data from both experimental and synthetic sources. We use persistent homology with a weight rank clique filtration to gain insights into these functional networks, and we use persistence landscapes to interpret our results. Our first example uses time-series output from networks of coupled Kuramoto oscillators. Our second example consists of biological data in the form of functional magnetic resonance imaging data that were acquired from human subjects during a simple motor-learning task in which subjects were monitored for three days during a five-day period. With these examples, we demonstrate that (1) using persistent homology to study functional networks provides fascinating insights into their properties and (2) the position of the features in a filtration can sometimes play a more vital role than persistence in the interpretation of topological features, even though conventionally the latter is used to distinguish between signal and noise. We find that persistent homology can detect differences in synchronization patterns in our data sets over time, giving insight both on changes in community structure in the networks and on increased synchronization between brain regions that form loops in a functional network during motor learning. For the motor-learning data, persistence landscapes also reveal that on average the majority of changes in the network loops take place on the second of the three days of the learning process.
  10. Homological Scaffolds of Brain Functional Networks (2014)

    G. Petri, P. Expert, F. Turkheimer, R. Carhart-Harris, D. Nutt, P. J. Hellyer, F. Vaccarino
    Abstract Networks, as efficient representations of complex systems, have appealed to scientists for a long time and now permeate many areas of science, including neuroimaging (Bullmore and Sporns 2009 Nat. Rev. Neurosci.10, 186–198. (doi:10.1038/nrn2618)). Traditionally, the structure of complex networks has been studied through their statistical properties and metrics concerned with node and link properties, e.g. degree-distribution, node centrality and modularity. Here, we study the characteristics of functional brain networks at the mesoscopic level from a novel perspective that highlights the role of inhomogeneities in the fabric of functional connections. This can be done by focusing on the features of a set of topological objects—homological cycles—associated with the weighted functional network. We leverage the detected topological information to define the homological scaffolds, a new set of objects designed to represent compactly the homological features of the correlation network and simultaneously make their homological properties amenable to networks theoretical methods. As a proof of principle, we apply these tools to compare resting-state functional brain activity in 15 healthy volunteers after intravenous infusion of placebo and psilocybin—the main psychoactive component of magic mushrooms. The results show that the homological structure of the brain's functional patterns undergoes a dramatic change post-psilocybin, characterized by the appearance of many transient structures of low stability and of a small number of persistent ones that are not observed in the case of placebo.