🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology
(found 4 matches in 0.002469s)
TDA-Net: Fusion of Persistent Homology and Deep Learning Features for COVID-19 Detection From Chest X-Ray Images (2021)Mustafa Hajij, Ghada Zamzmi, Fawwaz Batayneh
AbstractTopological Data Analysis (TDA) has emerged recently as a robust tool to extract and compare the structure of datasets. TDA identifies features in data (e.g., connected components and holes) and assigns a quantitative measure to these features. Several studies reported that topological features extracted by TDA tools provide unique information about the data, discover new insights, and determine which feature is more related to the outcome. On the other hand, the overwhelming success of deep neural networks in learning patterns and relationships has been proven on various data applications including images. To capture the characteristics of both worlds, we propose TDA-Net, a novel ensemble network that fuses topological and deep features for the purpose of enhancing model generalizability and accuracy. We apply the proposed TDA-Net to a critical application, which is the automated detection of COVID-19 from CXR images. Experimental results showed that the proposed network achieved excellent performance and suggested the applicability of our method in practice.
Inferring COVID-19 Biological Pathways From Clinical Phenotypes via Topological Analysis (2021)Negin Karisani, Daniel E. Platt, Saugata Basu, Laxmi Parida
AbstractCOVID-19 has caused thousands of deaths around the world and also resulted in a large international economic disruption. Identifying the pathways associated with this illness can help medical researchers to better understand the properties of the condition. This process can be carried out by analyzing the medical records. It is crucial to develop tools and models that can aid researchers with this process in a timely manner. However, medical records are often unstructured clinical notes, and this poses significant challenges to developing the automated systems. In this article, we propose a pipeline to aid practitioners in analyzing clinical notes and revealing the pathways associated with this disease. Our pipeline relies on topological properties and consists of three steps: 1) pre-processing the clinical notes to extract the salient concepts, 2) constructing a feature space of the patients to characterize the extracted concepts, and finally, 3) leveraging the topological properties to distill the available knowledge and visualize the result. Our experiments on a publicly available dataset of COVID-19 clinical notes testify that our pipeline can indeed extract meaningful pathways.
Classification of COVID-19 via Homology of CT-SCAN (2021)Sohail Iqbal, H. Fareed Ahmed, Talha Qaiser, Muhammad Imran Qureshi, Nasir Rajpoot
AbstractIn this worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection, it is of utmost importance to detect the disease at an early stage especially in the hot spots of this epidemic. There are more than 110 Million infected cases on the globe, sofar. Due to its promptness and effective results computed tomography (CT)-scan image is preferred to the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Early detection and isolation of the patient is the only possible way of controlling the spread of the disease. Automated analysis of CT-Scans can provide enormous support in this process. In this article, We propose a novel approach to detect SARS-CoV-2 using CT-scan images. Our method is based on a very intuitive and natural idea of analyzing shapes, an attempt to mimic a professional medic. We mainly trace SARS-CoV-2 features by quantifying their topological properties. We primarily use a tool called persistent homology, from Topological Data Analysis (TDA), to compute these topological properties. We train and test our model on the "SARS-CoV-2 CT-scan dataset" i̧tep\soares2020sars\, an open-source dataset, containing 2,481 CT-scans of normal and COVID-19 patients. Our model yielded an overall benchmark F1 score of \$99.42\% \$, accuracy \$99.416\%\$, precision \$99.41\%\$, and recall \$99.42\%\$. The TDA techniques have great potential that can be utilized for efficient and prompt detection of COVID-19. The immense potential of TDA may be exploited in clinics for rapid and safe detection of COVID-19 globally, in particular in the low and middle-income countries where RT-PCR labs and/or kits are in a serious crisis.