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Unexpected Topology of the Temperature Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background
(2019)
Pratyush Pranav, Robert J. Adler, Thomas Buchert, Herbert Edelsbrunner, Bernard J. T. Jones, Armin Schwartzman, Hubert Wagner, Rien van de Weygaert
Abstract
We study the topology generated by the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, as quantified by the number of components and holes, formally given by the Betti numbers, in the growing excursion sets. We compare CMB maps observed by the \textlessi\textgreaterPlanck\textlessi/\textgreater satellite with a thousand simulated maps generated according to the ΛCDM paradigm with Gaussian distributed fluctuations. The comparison is multiscale, being performed on a sequence of degraded maps with mean pixel separation ranging from 0.05 to 7.33°. The survey of the CMB over 𝕊\textlesssup\textgreater2\textlesssup/\textgreater is incomplete due to obfuscation effects by bright point sources and other extended foreground objects like our own galaxy. To deal with such situations, where analysis in the presence of “masks” is of importance, we introduce the concept of relative homology. The parametric \textlessi\textgreaterχ\textlessi/\textgreater\textlesssup\textgreater2\textlesssup/\textgreatertest shows differences between observations and simulations, yielding \textlessi\textgreaterp\textlessi/\textgreatervalues at percent to less than permil levels roughly between 2 and 7°, with the difference in the number of components and holes peaking at more than 3\textlessi\textgreaterσ\textlessi/\textgreater sporadically at these scales. The highest observed deviation between the observations and simulations for \textlessi\textgreaterb\textlessi/\textgreater\textlesssub\textgreater0\textlesssub/\textgreater and \textlessi\textgreaterb\textlessi/\textgreater\textlesssub\textgreater1\textlesssub/\textgreater is approximately between 3\textlessi\textgreaterσ\textlessi/\textgreater and 4\textlessi\textgreaterσ\textlessi/\textgreater at scales of 3–7°. There are reports of mildly unusual behaviour of the Euler characteristic at 3.66° in the literature, computed from independent measurements of the CMB temperature fluctuations by \textlessi\textgreaterPlanck\textlessi/\textgreater’s predecessor, the \textlessi\textgreaterWilkinson\textlessi/\textgreater Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite. The mildly anomalous behaviour of the Euler characteristic is phenomenologically related to the strongly anomalous behaviour of components and holes, or the zeroth and first Betti numbers, respectively. Further, since these topological descriptors show consistent anomalous behaviour over independent measurements of \textlessi\textgreaterPlanck\textlessi/\textgreater and WMAP, instrumental and systematic errors may be an unlikely source. These are also the scales at which the observed maps exhibit low variance compared to the simulations, and approximately the range of scales at which the power spectrum exhibits a dip with respect to the theoretical model. Nonparametric tests show even stronger differences at almost all scales. Crucially, Gaussian simulations based on powerspectrum matching the characteristics of the observed dipped power spectrum are not able to resolve the anomaly. Understanding the origin of the anomalies in the CMB, whether cosmological in nature or arising due to latetime effects, is an extremely challenging task. Regardless, beyond the trivial possibility that this may still be a manifestation of an extreme Gaussian case, these observations, along with the superhorizon scales involved, may motivate the study of primordial nonGaussianity. Alternative scenarios worth exploring may be models with nontrivial topology, including topological defect models.