🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 6 matches in 0.001751s)
  1. Automatic Tree Ring Detection Using Jacobi Sets (2020)

    Kayla Makela, Tim Ophelders, Michelle Quigley, Elizabeth Munch, Daniel Chitwood, Asia Dowtin
    Abstract Tree ring widths are an important source of climatic and historical data, but measuring these widths typically requires extensive manual work. Computer vision techniques provide promising directions towards the automation of tree ring detection, but most automated methods still require a substantial amount of user interaction to obtain high accuracy. We perform analysis on 3D X-ray CT images of a cross-section of a tree trunk, known as a tree disk. We present novel automated methods for locating the pith (center) of a tree disk, and ring boundaries. Our methods use a combination of standard image processing techniques and tools from topological data analysis. We evaluate the efficacy of our method for two different CT scans by comparing its results to manually located rings and centers and show that it is better than current automatic methods in terms of correctly counting each ring and its location. Our methods have several parameters, which we optimize experimentally by minimizing edit distances to the manually obtained locations.
  2. Specimen-Based Analysis of Morphology and the Environment in Ecologically Dominant Grasses: The Power of the Herbarium (2019)

    Christine A. McAllister, Michael R. McKain, Mao Li, Bess Bookout, Elizabeth A. Kellogg
    Abstract Herbaria contain a cumulative sample of the world's flora, assembled by thousands of people over centuries. To capitalize on this resource, we conducted a specimen-based analysis of a major clade in the grass tribe Andropogoneae, including the dominant species of the world's grasslands in the genera Andropogon, Schizachyrium, Hyparrhenia and several others. We imaged 186 of the 250 named species of the clade, georeferenced the specimens and extracted climatic variables for each. Using semi- and fully automated image analysis techniques, we extracted spikelet morphological characters and correlated these with environmental variables. We generated chloroplast genome sequences to correct for phylogenetic covariance and here present a new phylogeny for 81 of the species. We confirm and extend earlier studies to show that Andropogon and Schizachyrium are not monophyletic. In addition, we find all morphological and ecological characters are homoplasious but variable among clades. For example, sessile spikelet length is positively correlated with awn length when all accessions are considered, but when separated by clade, the relationship is positive for three sub-clades and negative for three others. Climate variables showed no correlation with morphological variation in the spikelet pair; only very weak effects of temperature and precipitation were detected on macrohair density. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Biological collections for understanding biodiversity in the Anthropocene'.
  3. The Persistent Homology Mathematical Framework Provides Enhanced Genotype-to-Phenotype Associations for Plant Morphology (2018)

    Mao Li, Margaret H. Frank, Viktoriya Coneva, Washington Mio, Daniel H. Chitwood, Christopher N. Topp
    Abstract Efforts to understand the genetic and environmental conditioning of plant morphology are hindered by the lack of flexible and effective tools for quantifying morphology. Here, we demonstrate that persistent-homology-based topological methods can improve measurement of variation in leaf shape, serrations, and root architecture. We apply these methods to 2D images of leaves and root systems in field-grown plants of a domesticated introgression line population of tomato (Solanum pennellii). We find that compared with some commonly used conventional traits, (1) persistent-homology-based methods can more comprehensively capture morphological variation; (2) these techniques discriminate between genotypes with a larger normalized effect size and detect a greater number of unique quantitative trait loci (QTLs); (3) multivariate traits, whether statistically derived from univariate or persistent-homology-based traits, improve our ability to understand the genetic basis of phenotype; and (4) persistent-homology-based techniques detect unique QTLs compared to conventional traits or their multivariate derivatives, indicating that previously unmeasured aspects of morphology are now detectable. The QTL results further imply that genetic contributions to morphology can affect both the shoot and root, revealing a pleiotropic basis to natural variation in tomato. Persistent homology is a versatile framework to quantify plant morphology and developmental processes that complements and extends existing methods.
  4. A Morphometric Analysis of Vegetation Patterns in Dryland Ecosystems (2017)

    Luke Mander, Stefan C. Dekker, Mao Li, Washington Mio, Surangi W. Punyasena, Timothy M. Lenton
    Abstract Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that spotted vegetation patterns could indicate that collapse into a bare ground state is imminent, and the morphology of spatial vegetation patterns, therefore, represents a potentially valuable source of information on the proximity of regime shifts in dryland ecosystems. In this paper, we have developed quantitative methods to characterize the morphology of spatial patterns in dryland vegetation. Our approach is based on algorithmic techniques that have been used to classify pollen grains on the basis of textural patterning, and involves constructing feature vectors to quantify the shapes formed by vegetation patterns. We have analysed images of patterned vegetation produced by a computational model and a small set of satellite images from South Kordofan (South Sudan), which illustrates that our methods are applicable to both simulated and real-world data. Our approach provides a means of quantifying patterns that are frequently described using qualitative terminology, and could be used to classify vegetation patterns in large-scale satellite surveys of dryland ecosystems.
  5. Computing Robustness and Persistence for Images (2010)

    P. Bendich, H. Edelsbrunner, M. Kerber
    Abstract We are interested in 3-dimensional images given as arrays of voxels with intensity values. Extending these values to a continuous function, we study the robustness of homology classes in its level and interlevel sets, that is, the amount of perturbation needed to destroy these classes. The structure of the homology classes and their robustness, over all level and interlevel sets, can be visualized by a triangular diagram of dots obtained by computing the extended persistence of the function. We give a fast hierarchical algorithm using the dual complexes of oct-tree approximations of the function. In addition, we show that for balanced oct-trees, the dual complexes are geometrically realized in R3 and can thus be used to construct level and interlevel sets. We apply these tools to study 3-dimensional images of plant root systems.