🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 9 matches in 0.002266s)
  1. Determining Clinically Relevant Features in Cytometry Data Using Persistent Homology (2022)

    Soham Mukherjee, Darren Wethington, Tamal K. Dey, Jayajit Das
    Abstract Cytometry experiments yield high-dimensional point cloud data that is difficult to interpret manually. Boolean gating techniques coupled with comparisons of relative abundances of cellular subsets is the current standard for cytometry data analysis. However, this approach is unable to capture more subtle topological features hidden in data, especially if those features are further masked by data transforms or significant batch effects or donor-to-donor variations in clinical data. We present that persistent homology, a mathematical structure that summarizes the topological features, can distinguish different sources of data, such as from groups of healthy donors or patients, effectively. Analysis of publicly available cytometry data describing non-naïve CD8+ T cells in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls shows that systematic structural differences exist between single cell protein expressions in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. We identify proteins of interest by a decision-tree based classifier, sample points randomly and compute persistence diagrams from these sampled points. The resulting persistence diagrams identify regions in cytometry datasets of varying density and identify protruded structures such as ‘elbows’. We compute Wasserstein distances between these persistence diagrams for random pairs of healthy controls and COVID-19 patients and find that systematic structural differences exist between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls in the expression data for T-bet, Eomes, and Ki-67. Further analysis shows that expression of T-bet and Eomes are significantly downregulated in COVID-19 patient non-naïve CD8+ T cells compared to healthy controls. This counter-intuitive finding may indicate that canonical effector CD8+ T cells are less prevalent in COVID-19 patients than healthy controls. This method is applicable to any cytometry dataset for discovering novel insights through topological data analysis which may be difficult to ascertain otherwise with a standard gating strategy or existing bioinformatic tools.

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  2. Toroidal Topology of Population Activity in Grid Cells (2022)

    Richard J. Gardner, Erik Hermansen, Marius Pachitariu, Yoram Burak, Nils A. Baas, Benjamin A. Dunn, May-Britt Moser, Edvard I. Moser
    Abstract The medial entorhinal cortex is part of a neural system for mapping the position of an individual within a physical environment1. Grid cells, a key component of this system, fire in a characteristic hexagonal pattern of locations2, and are organized in modules3 that collectively form a population code for the animal’s allocentric position1. The invariance of the correlation structure of this population code across environments4,5 and behavioural states6,7, independent of specific sensory inputs, has pointed to intrinsic, recurrently connected continuous attractor networks (CANs) as a possible substrate of the grid pattern1,8–11. However, whether grid cell networks show continuous attractor dynamics, and how they interface with inputs from the environment, has remained unclear owing to the small samples of cells obtained so far. Here, using simultaneous recordings from many hundreds of grid cells and subsequent topological data analysis, we show that the joint activity of grid cells from an individual module resides on a toroidal manifold, as expected in a two-dimensional CAN. Positions on the torus correspond to positions of the moving animal in the environment. Individual cells are preferentially active at singular positions on the torus. Their positions are maintained between environments and from wakefulness to sleep, as predicted by CAN models for grid cells but not by alternative feedforward models12. This demonstration of network dynamics on a toroidal manifold provides a population-level visualization of CAN dynamics in grid cells.
  3. From Topological Analyses to Functional Modeling: The Case of Hippocampus (2021)

    Yuri Dabaghian
    Abstract Topological data analyses are widely used for describing and conceptualizing large volumes of neurobiological data, e.g., for quantifying spiking outputs of large neuronal ensembles and thus understanding the functions of the corresponding networks. Below we discuss an approach in which convergent topological analyses produce insights into how information may be processed in mammalian hippocampus—a brain part that plays a key role in learning and memory. The resulting functional model provides a unifying framework for integrating spiking data at different timescales and following the course of spatial learning at different levels of spatiotemporal granularity. This approach allows accounting for contributions from various physiological phenomena into spatial cognition—the neuronal spiking statistics, the effects of spiking synchronization by different brain waves, the roles played by synaptic efficacies and so forth. In particular, it is possible to demonstrate that networks with plastic and transient synaptic architectures can encode stable cognitive maps, revealing the characteristic timescales of memory processing.
  4. Stable Topological Summaries for Analyzing the Organization of Cells in a Packed Tissue (2021)

    Nieves Atienza, Maria-Jose Jimenez, Manuel Soriano-Trigueros
    Abstract We use topological data analysis tools for studying the inner organization of cells in segmented images of epithelial tissues. More specifically, for each segmented image, we compute different persistence barcodes, which codify the lifetime of homology classes (persistent homology) along different filtrations (increasing nested sequences of simplicial complexes) that are built from the regions representing the cells in the tissue. We use a complete and well-grounded set of numerical variables over those persistence barcodes, also known as topological summaries. A novel combination of normalization methods for both the set of input segmented images and the produced barcodes allows for the proven stability results for those variables with respect to small changes in the input, as well as invariance to image scale. Our study provides new insights to this problem, such as a possible novel indicator for the development of the drosophila wing disc tissue or the importance of centroids’ distribution to differentiate some tissues from their CVT-path counterpart (a mathematical model of epithelia based on Voronoi diagrams). We also show how the use of topological summaries may improve the classification accuracy of epithelial images using a Random Forest algorithm.
  5. Cell Complex Neural Networks (2020)

    Mustafa Hajij, Kyle Istvan, Ghada Zamzami
    Abstract Cell complexes are topological spaces constructed from simple blocks called cells. They generalize graphs, simplicial complexes, and polyhedral complexes that form important domains for practical applications. We propose a general, combinatorial, and unifying construction for performing neural network-type computations on cell complexes. Furthermore, we introduce inter-cellular message passing schemes, message passing schemes on cell complexes that take the topology of the underlying space into account. In particular, our method generalizes many of the most popular types of graph neural networks.
  6. The Importance of Forgetting: Limiting Memory Improves Recovery of Topological Characteristics From Neural Data (2018)

    Samir Chowdhury, Bowen Dai, Facundo Mémoli
    Abstract We develop of a line of work initiated by Curto and Itskov towards understanding the amount of information contained in the spike trains of hippocampal place cells via topology considerations. Previously, it was established that simply knowing which groups of place cells fire together in an animal’s hippocampus is sufficient to extract the global topology of the animal’s physical environment. We model a system where collections of place cells group and ungroup according to short-term plasticity rules. In particular, we obtain the surprising result that in experiments with spurious firing, the accuracy of the extracted topological information decreases with the persistence (beyond a certain regime) of the cell groups. This suggests that synaptic transience, or forgetting, is a mechanism by which the brain counteracts the effects of spurious place cell activity.
  7. Reconceiving the Hippocampal Map as a Topological Template (2014)

    Yuri Dabaghian, Vicky L. Brandt, Loren M. Frank
    Abstract The role of the hippocampus in spatial cognition is incontrovertible yet controversial. Place cells, initially thought to be location-specifiers, turn out to respond promiscuously to a wide range of stimuli. Here we test the idea, which we have recently demonstrated in a computational model, that the hippocampal place cells may ultimately be interested in a space's topological qualities (its connectivity) more than its geometry (distances and angles); such higher-order functioning would be more consistent with other known hippocampal functions. We recorded place cell activity in rats exploring morphing linear tracks that allowed us to dissociate the geometry of the track from its topology. The resulting place fields preserved the relative sequence of places visited along the track but did not vary with the metrical features of the track or the direction of the rat's movement. These results suggest a reinterpretation of previous studies and new directions for future experiments.