🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 7 matches in 0.001987s)
  1. Protein-Folding Analysis Using Features Obtained by Persistent Homology (2020)

    Takashi Ichinomiya, Ippei Obayashi, Yasuaki Hiraoka
    Abstract Understanding the protein-folding process is an outstanding issue in biophysics; recent developments in molecular dynamics simulation have provided insights into this phenomenon. However, the large freedom of atomic motion hinders the understanding of this process. In this study, we applied persistent homology, an emerging method to analyze topological features in a data set, to reveal protein-folding dynamics. We developed a new, to our knowledge, method to characterize the protein structure based on persistent homology and applied this method to molecular dynamics simulations of chignolin. Using principle component analysis or nonnegative matrix factorization, our analysis method revealed two stable states and one saddle state, corresponding to the native, misfolded, and transition states, respectively. We also identified an unfolded state with slow dynamics in the reduced space. Our method serves as a promising tool to understand the protein-folding process.
  2. Persistent Homology Analysis of Osmolyte Molecular Aggregation and Their Hydrogen-Bonding Networks (2019)

    Kelin Xia, D. Vijay Anand, Saxena Shikhar, Yuguang Mu
    Abstract Dramatically different properties have been observed for two types of osmolytes, i.e., trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and urea, in a protein folding process. Great progress has been made in revealing the potential underlying mechanism of these two osmolyte systems. However, many problems still remain unsolved. In this paper, we propose to use the persistent homology to systematically study the osmolytes’ molecular aggregation and their hydrogen-bonding network from a global topological perspective. It has been found that, for the first time, TMAO and urea show two extremely different topological behaviors, i.e., an extensive network and local clusters, respectively. In general, TMAO forms highly consistent large loop or circle structures in high concentrations. In contrast, urea is more tightly aggregated locally. Moreover, the resulting hydrogen-bonding networks also demonstrate distinguishable features. With a concentration increase, TMAO hydrogen-bonding networks vary greatly in their total number of loop structures and large-sized loop structures consistently increase. In contrast, urea hydrogen-bonding networks remain relatively stable with slight reduction of the total loop number. Moreover, the persistent entropy (PE) is, for the first time, used in characterization of the topological information of the aggregation and hydrogen-bonding networks. The average PE systematically increases with the concentration for both TMAO and urea, and decreases in their hydrogen-bonding networks. But their PE variances have totally different behaviors. Finally, topological features of the hydrogen-bonding networks are found to be highly consistent with those from the ion aggregation systems, indicating that our topological invariants can characterize intrinsic features of the “structure making” and “structure breaking” systems.
  3. Persistent Homology Analysis of Ion Aggregations and Hydrogen-Bonding Networks (2018)

    Kelin Xia
    Abstract Despite the great advancement of experimental tools and theoretical models, a quantitative characterization of the microscopic structures of ion aggregates and their associated water hydrogen-bonding networks still remains a challenging problem. In this paper, a newly-invented mathematical method called persistent homology is introduced, for the first time, to quantitatively analyze the intrinsic topological properties of ion aggregation systems and hydrogen-bonding networks. The two most distinguishable properties of persistent homology analysis of assembly systems are as follows. First, it does not require a predefined bond length to construct the ion or hydrogen-bonding network. Persistent homology results are determined by the morphological structure of the data only. Second, it can directly measure the size of circles or holes in ion aggregates and hydrogen-bonding networks. To validate our model, we consider two well-studied systems, i.e., NaCl and KSCN solutions, generated from molecular dynamics simulations. They are believed to represent two morphological types of aggregation, i.e., local clusters and extended ion networks. It has been found that the two aggregation types have distinguishable topological features and can be characterized by our topological model very well. Further, we construct two types of networks, i.e., O-networks and H2O-networks, for analyzing the topological properties of hydrogen-bonding networks. It is found that for both models, KSCN systems demonstrate much more dramatic variations in their local circle structures with a concentration increase. A consistent increase of large-sized local circle structures is observed and the sizes of these circles become more and more diverse. In contrast, NaCl systems show no obvious increase of large-sized circles. Instead a consistent decline of the average size of the circle structures is observed and the sizes of these circles become more and more uniform with a concentration increase. As far as we know, these unique intrinsic topological features in ion aggregation systems have never been pointed out before. More importantly, our models can be directly used to quantitatively analyze the intrinsic topological invariants, including circles, loops, holes, and cavities, of any network-like structures, such as nanomaterials, colloidal systems, biomolecular assemblies, among others. These topological invariants cannot be described by traditional graph and network models.
  4. The Architecture of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Is Regulated by the Reversible Lipid Modification of the Shaping Protein CLIMP-63 (2018)

    Patrick A. Sandoz, Robin A. Denhardt-Eriksson, Laurence Abrami, Luciano Abriata, Gard Spreemann, Catherine Maclachlan, Sylvia Ho, Béatrice Kunz, Kathryn Hess, Graham Knott, Vassily Hatzimanikatis, F. Gisou van der Goot
    Abstract \textlessh3\textgreaterAbstract\textless/h3\textgreater \textlessp\textgreaterThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a complex morphology generated and maintained by membrane-shaping proteins and membrane energy minimization, though not much is known about how it is regulated. The architecture of this intracellular organelle is balanced between large, thin sheets that are densely packed in the perinuclear region and a connected network of branched, elongated tubules that extend throughout the cytoplasm. Sheet formation is known to involve the cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein 63 (CLIMP-63), though its regulation and the depth of its involvement remain unknown. Here we show that the post-translational modification of CLIMP-63 by the palmitoyltransferase ZDHHC6 controls the relative distribution of CLIMP-63 between the ER and the plasma membrane. By combining data-driven mathematical modeling, predictions, and experimental validation, we found that the attachment of a medium chain fatty acid, so-called S-palmitoylation, to the unique CLIMP-63 cytoplasmic cysteine residue drastically reduces its turnover rate, and thereby controls its abundance. Light microscopy and focused ion beam electron microcopy further revealed that enhanced CLIMP-63 palmitoylation leads to strong ER-sheet proliferation. Altogether, we show that ZDHHC6-mediated S-palmitoylation regulates the cellular localization of CLIMP-63, the morphology of the ER, and the interconversion of ER structural elements in mammalian cells through its action on the CLIMP-63 protein.\textless/p\textgreater\textlessh3\textgreaterSignificance Statement\textless/h3\textgreater \textlessp\textgreaterEukaryotic cells subcompartmentalize their various functions into organelles, the shape of each being specific and necessary for its proper role. However, how these shapes are generated and controlled is poorly understood. The endoplasmic reticulum is the largest membrane-bound intracellular compartment, accounting for more than 50% of all cellular membranes. We found that the shape and quantity of its sheet-like structures are controlled by a specific protein, cytoskeleton-linking membrane protein 63, through the acquisition of a lipid chain attached by an enzyme called ZDHHC6. Thus, by modifying the ZDHHC6 amounts, a cell can control the shape of its ER. The modeling and prediction technique used herein also provides a method for studying the interconnected function of other post-translational modifications in organelles.\textless/p\textgreater
  5. Conserved Abundance and Topological Features in Chromatin-Remodeling Protein Interaction Networks (2015)

    Mihaela E Sardiu, Joshua M Gilmore, Brad D Groppe, Damir Herman, Sreenivasa R Ramisetty, Yong Cai, Jingji Jin, Ronald C Conaway, Joan W Conaway, Laurence Florens, Michael P Washburn
    Abstract Abstract The study of conserved protein interaction networks seeks to better understand the evolution and regulation of protein interactions. Here, we present a quantitative proteomic analysis of 18 orthologous baits from three distinct chromatin-remodeling complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens. We demonstrate that abundance levels of orthologous proteins correlate strongly between the two organisms and both networks have highly similar topologies. We therefore used the protein abundances in one species to cross-predict missing protein abundance levels in the other species. Lastly, we identified a novel conserved low-abundance subnetwork further demonstrating the value of quantitative analysis of networks.
  6. Persistent Homology Analysis of Protein Structure, Flexibility, and Folding (2014)

    Kelin Xia, Guo-Wei Wei
    Abstract SUMMARYProteins are the most important biomolecules for living organisms. The understanding of protein structure, function, dynamics, and transport is one of the most challenging tasks in biological science. In the present work, persistent homology is, for the first time, introduced for extracting molecular topological fingerprints (MTFs) based on the persistence of molecular topological invariants. MTFs are utilized for protein characterization, identification, and classification. The method of slicing is proposed to track the geometric origin of protein topological invariants. Both all-atom and coarse-grained representations of MTFs are constructed. A new cutoff-like filtration is proposed to shed light on the optimal cutoff distance in elastic network models. On the basis of the correlation between protein compactness, rigidity, and connectivity, we propose an accumulated bar length generated from persistent topological invariants for the quantitative modeling of protein flexibility. To this end, a correlation matrix-based filtration is developed. This approach gives rise to an accurate prediction of the optimal characteristic distance used in protein B-factor analysis. Finally, MTFs are employed to characterize protein topological evolution during protein folding and quantitatively predict the protein folding stability. An excellent consistence between our persistent homology prediction and molecular dynamics simulation is found. This work reveals the topology–function relationship of proteins. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.