🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 5 matches in 0.001702s)
  1. Measuring Hidden Phenotype: Quantifying the Shape of Barley Seeds Using the Euler Characteristic Transform (2021)

    Erik J. Amézquita, Michelle Y. Quigley, Tim Ophelders, Jacob B. Landis, Daniel Koenig, Elizabeth Munch, Daniel H. Chitwood
    Abstract Shape plays a fundamental role in biology. Traditional phenotypic analysis methods measure some features but fail to measure the information embedded in shape comprehensively. To extract, compare, and analyze this information embedded in a robust and concise way, we turn to Topological Data Analysis (TDA), specifically the Euler Characteristic Transform. TDA measures shape comprehensively using mathematical representations based on algebraic topology features. To study its use, we compute both traditional and topological shape descriptors to quantify the morphology of 3121 barley seeds scanned with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) technology at 127 micron resolution. The Euler Characteristic Transform measures shape by analyzing topological features of an object at thresholds across a number of directional axes. A Kruskal-Wallis analysis of the information encoded by the topological signature reveals that the Euler Characteristic Transform picks up successfully the shape of the crease and bottom of the seeds. Moreover, while traditional shape descriptors can cluster the seeds based on their accession, topological shape descriptors can cluster them further based on their panicle. We then successfully train a support vector machine (SVM) to classify 28 different accessions of barley based exclusively on the shape of their grains. We observe that combining both traditional and topological descriptors classifies barley seeds better than using just traditional descriptors alone. This improvement suggests that TDA is thus a powerful complement to traditional morphometrics to comprehensively describe a multitude of “hidden” shape nuances which are otherwise not detected.
  2. Rootstock Effects on Scion Phenotypes in a ‘Chambourcin’ Experimental Vineyard (2019)

    Zoë Migicovsky, Zachary N Harris, Laura L Klein, Mao Li, Adam McDermaid, Daniel H Chitwood, Anne Fennell, Laszlo G Kovacs, Misha Kwasniewski, Jason P Londo, Qin Ma, Allison J Miller
    Abstract Understanding how root systems modulate shoot system phenotypes is a fundamental question in plant biology and will be useful in developing resilient agricultural crops. Grafting is a common horticultural practice that joins the roots (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot (scion) of another, providing an excellent method for investigating how these two organ systems affect each other. In this study, we used the French-American hybrid grapevine ‘Chambourcin’ (Vitis L.) as a model to explore the rootstock–scion relationship. We examined leaf shape, ion concentrations, and gene expression in ‘Chambourcin’ grown ungrafted as well as grafted to three different rootstocks (‘SO4’, ‘1103P’ and ‘3309C’) across 2 years and three different irrigation treatments. We found that a significant amount of the variation in leaf shape could be explained by the interaction between rootstock and irrigation. For ion concentrations, the primary source of variation identified was the position of a leaf in a shoot, although rootstock and rootstock by irrigation interaction also explained a significant amount of variation for most ions. Lastly, we found rootstock-specific patterns of gene expression in grafted plants when compared to ungrafted vines. Thus, our work reveals the subtle and complex effect of grafting on ‘Chambourcin’ leaf morphology, ionomics, and gene expression.
  3. Morphometrics Reveals Complex and Heritable Apple Leaf Shapes (2018)

    Zoë Migicovsky, Mao Li, Daniel H. Chitwood, Sean Myles
    Abstract Apple (Malus spp.) is a widely grown and valuable fruit crop. Leaf shape is important for flowering in apple and may also be an early indicator for other agriculturally valuable traits. We examined 9,000 leaves from 869 unique apple accessions using linear measurements and comprehensive morphometric techniques. We identified allometric variation as the result of differing length-to-width aspect ratios between accessions and species of apple. The allometric variation was due to variation in the width of the leaf blade, not the length. Aspect ratio was highly correlated with the first principal component (PC1) of morphometric variation quantified using elliptical Fourier descriptors (EFDs) and persistent homology (PH). While the primary source of variation was aspect ratio, subsequent PCs corresponded to complex shape variation not captured by linear measurements. After linking the morphometric information with over 122,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we found high SNP heritability values even at later PCs, indicating that comprehensive morphometrics can capture complex, heritable phenotypes. Thus, techniques such as EFDs and PH are capturing heritable biological variation that would be missed using linear measurements alone.
  4. Image-Based Phenotyping for Identification of QTL Determining Fruit Shape and Size in American Cranberry (Vaccinium Macrocarpon L.) (2018)

    Luis Diaz-Garcia, Giovanny Covarrubias-Pazaran, Brandon Schlautman, Edward Grygleski, Juan Zalapa
    Abstract Image-based phenotyping methodologies are powerful tools to determine quality parameters for fruit breeders and processors. The fruit size and shape of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon L.) are particularly important characteristics that determine the harvests’ processing value and potential end-use products (e.g., juice vs. sweetened dried cranberries). However, cranberry fruit size and shape attributes can be difficult and time consuming for breeders and processors to measure, especially when relying on manual measurements and visual ratings. Therefore, in this study, we implemented image-based phenotyping techniques for gathering data regarding basic cranberry fruit parameters such as length, width, length-to-width ratio, and eccentricity. Additionally, we applied a persistent homology algorithm to better characterize complex shape parameters. Using this high-throughput artificial vision approach, we characterized fruit from 351 progeny from a full-sib cranberry population over three field seasons. Using a covariate analysis to maximize the identification of well-supported quantitative trait loci (QTL), we found 252 single QTL in a 3-year period for cranberry fruit size and shape descriptors from which 20% were consistently found in all years. The present study highlights the potential for the identified QTL and the image-based methods to serve as a basis for future explorations of the genetic architecture of fruit size and shape in cranberry and other fruit crops.