🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 13 matches in 0.001844s)
  1. Topological Early Warning Signals: Quantifying Varying Routes to Extinction in a Spatially Distributed Population Model (2022)

    Laura S. Storch, Sarah L. Day
    Abstract Understanding and predicting critical transitions in spatially explicit ecological systems is particularly challenging due to their complex spatial and temporal dynamics and high dimensionality. Here, we explore changes in population distribution patterns during a critical transition (an extinction event) using computational topology. Computational topology allows us to quantify certain features of a population distribution pattern, such as the level of fragmentation. We create population distribution patterns via a simple coupled patch model with Ricker map growth and nearest neighbors dispersal on a two dimensional lattice. We observe two dominant paths to extinction within the explored parameter space that depend critically on the dispersal rate d and the rate of parameter drift, Δϵ. These paths to extinction are easily topologically distinguishable, so categorization can be automated. We use this population model as a theoretical proof-of-concept for the methodology, and argue that computational topology is a powerful tool for analyzing dynamical changes in systems with noisy data that are coarsely resolved in space and/or time. In addition, computational topology can provide early warning signals for chaotic dynamical systems where traditional statistical early warning signals would fail. For these reasons, we envision this work as a helpful addition to the critical transitions prediction toolbox.
  2. Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF): Improving the Assessment and Classification of MPN Patients (2022)

    Hosuk Ryou, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Alan Aberdeen, Gillian Grindstaff, Bernadette Stolz, Helen Byrne, Heather A. Harrington, Nikolaos Sousos, Anna L. Godfrey, Claire N. Harrison, Bethan Psaila, Adam J. Mead, Gabrielle Rees, Gareth D. H. Turner, Jens Rittscher, Daniel Royston
    Abstract The detection and grading of fibrosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is an important component of disease classification, prognostication and disease monitoring. However, current fibrosis grading systems are only semi-quantitative and fail to capture sample heterogeneity. To improve the detection, quantitation and representation of reticulin fibrosis, we developed a machine learning (ML) approach using bone marrow trephine (BMT) samples (n = 107) from patients diagnosed with MPN or a reactive / nonneoplastic marrow. The resulting Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF) enhances the detection and monitoring of fibrosis within BMTs, and aids the discrimination of MPN subtypes. When combined with megakaryocyte feature analysis, CIF discriminates between the frequently challenging differential diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and pre-fibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) with high predictive accuracy [area under the curve = 0.94]. CIF also shows significant promise in the identification of MPN patients at risk of disease progression; analysis of samples from 35 patients diagnosed with ET and enrolled in the Primary Thrombocythemia-1 (PT-1) trial identified features predictive of post-ET myelofibrosis (area under the curve = 0.77). In addition to these clinical applications, automated analysis of fibrosis has clear potential to further refine disease classification boundaries and inform future studies of the micro-environmental factors driving disease initiation and progression in MPN and other stem cell disorders. The image analysis methods used to generate CIF can be readily integrated with those of other key morphological features in MPNs, including megakaryocyte morphology, that lie beyond the scope of conventional histological assessment. Key PointsMachine learning enables an objective and quantitative description of reticulin fibrosis within the bone marrow of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN),Automated analysis and Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF) captures heterogeneity within MPN samples and has utility in refined classification and disease monitoringQuantitative fibrosis assessment combined with topological data analysis may help to predict patients at increased risk of progression to post-ET myelofibrosis, and assist in the discrimination of ET and pre-fibrotic PMF (pre-PMF)
  3. Topological Data Analysis of C. Elegans Locomotion and Behavior (2021)

    Ashleigh Thomas, Kathleen Bates, Alex Elchesen, Iryna Hartsock, Hang Lu, Peter Bubenik
    Abstract Video of nematodes/roundworms was analyzed using persistent homology to study locomotion and behavior. In each frame, an organism's body posture was represented by a high-dimensional vector. By concatenating points in fixed-duration segments of this time series, we created a sliding window embedding (sometimes called a time delay embedding) where each point corresponds to a sequence of postures of an organism. Persistent homology on the points in this time series detected behaviors and comparisons of these persistent homology computations detected variation in their corresponding behaviors. We used average persistence landscapes and machine learning techniques to study changes in locomotion and behavior in varying environments.
  4. Data-Driven and Automatic Surface Texture Analysis Using Persistent Homology (2021)

    Melih C. Yesilli, Firas A. Khasawneh
    Abstract Surface roughness plays an important role in analyzing engineering surfaces. It quantifies the surface topography and can be used to determine whether the resulting surface finish is acceptable or not. Nevertheless, while several existing tools and standards are available for computing surface roughness, these methods rely heavily on user input thus slowing down the analysis and increasing manufacturing costs. Therefore, fast and automatic determination of the roughness level is essential to avoid costs resulting from surfaces with unacceptable finish, and user-intensive analysis. In this study, we propose a Topological Data Analysis (TDA) based approach to classify the roughness level of synthetic surfaces using both their areal images and profiles. We utilize persistent homology from TDA to generate persistence diagrams that encapsulate information on the shape of the surface. We then obtain feature matrices for each surface or profile using Carlsson coordinates, persistence images, and template functions. We compare our results to two widely used methods in the literature: Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Gaussian filtering. The results show that our approach yields mean accuracies as high as 97%. We also show that, in contrast to existing surface analysis tools, our TDA-based approach is fully automatable and provides adaptive feature extraction.
  5. Quantification of the Immune Content in Neuroblastoma: Deep Learning and Topological Data Analysis in Digital Pathology (2021)

    Nicole Bussola, Bruno Papa, Ombretta Melaiu, Aurora Castellano, Doriana Fruci, Giuseppe Jurman
    Abstract We introduce here a novel machine learning (ML) framework to address the issue of the quantitative assessment of the immune content in neuroblastoma (NB) specimens. First, the EUNet, a U-Net with an EfficientNet encoder, is trained to detect lymphocytes on tissue digital slides stained with the CD3 T-cell marker. The training set consists of 3782 images extracted from an original collection of 54 whole slide images (WSIs), manually annotated for a total of 73,751 lymphocytes. Resampling strategies, data augmentation, and transfer learning approaches are adopted to warrant reproducibility and to reduce the risk of overfitting and selection bias. Topological data analysis (TDA) is then used to define activation maps from different layers of the neural network at different stages of the training process, described by persistence diagrams (PD) and Betti curves. TDA is further integrated with the uniform manifold approximation and projection (UMAP) dimensionality reduction and the hierarchical density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (HDBSCAN) algorithm for clustering, by the deep features, the relevant subgroups and structures, across different levels of the neural network. Finally, the recent TwoNN approach is leveraged to study the variation of the intrinsic dimensionality of the U-Net model. As the main task, the proposed pipeline is employed to evaluate the density of lymphocytes over the whole tissue area of the WSIs. The model achieves good results with mean absolute error 3.1 on test set, showing significant agreement between densities estimated by our EUNet model and by trained pathologists, thus indicating the potentialities of a promising new strategy in the quantification of the immune content in NB specimens. Moreover, the UMAP algorithm unveiled interesting patterns compatible with pathological characteristics, also highlighting novel insights into the dynamics of the intrinsic dataset dimensionality at different stages of the training process. All the experiments were run on the Microsoft Azure cloud platform.
  6. Can Neural Networks Learn Persistent Homology Features? (2020)

    Guido Montúfar, Nina Otter, Yuguang Wang
    Abstract Topological data analysis uses tools from topology -- the mathematical area that studies shapes -- to create representations of data. In particular, in persistent homology, one studies one-parameter families of spaces associated with data, and persistence diagrams describe the lifetime of topological invariants, such as connected components or holes, across the one-parameter family. In many applications, one is interested in working with features associated with persistence diagrams rather than the diagrams themselves. In our work, we explore the possibility of learning several types of features extracted from persistence diagrams using neural networks.
  7. Topological Data Analysis of Zebrafish Patterns (2020)

    Melissa R. McGuirl, Alexandria Volkening, Björn Sandstede
    Abstract Self-organized pattern behavior is ubiquitous throughout nature, from fish schooling to collective cell dynamics during organism development. Qualitatively these patterns display impressive consistency, yet variability inevitably exists within pattern-forming systems on both microscopic and macroscopic scales. Quantifying variability and measuring pattern features can inform the underlying agent interactions and allow for predictive analyses. Nevertheless, current methods for analyzing patterns that arise from collective behavior capture only macroscopic features or rely on either manual inspection or smoothing algorithms that lose the underlying agent-based nature of the data. Here we introduce methods based on topological data analysis and interpretable machine learning for quantifying both agent-level features and global pattern attributes on a large scale. Because the zebrafish is a model organism for skin pattern formation, we focus specifically on analyzing its skin patterns as a means of illustrating our approach. Using a recent agent-based model, we simulate thousands of wild-type and mutant zebrafish patterns and apply our methodology to better understand pattern variability in zebrafish. Our methodology is able to quantify the differential impact of stochasticity in cell interactions on wild-type and mutant patterns, and we use our methods to predict stripe and spot statistics as a function of varying cellular communication. Our work provides an approach to automatically quantifying biological patterns and analyzing agent-based dynamics so that we can now answer critical questions in pattern formation at a much larger scale.
  8. Combining Geometric and Topological Information in Image Segmentation (2019)

    Hengrui Luo, Justin Strait
    Abstract A fundamental problem in computer vision is image segmentation, where the goal is to delineate the boundary of an object in the image. The focus of this work is on the segmentation of grayscale images and its purpose is two-fold. First, we conduct an in-depth study comparing active contour and topology-based methods in a statistical framework, two popular approaches for boundary detection of 2-dimensional images. Certain properties of the image dataset may favor one method over the other, both from an interpretability perspective as well as through evaluation of performance measures. Second, we propose the use of topological knowledge to assist an active contour method, which can potentially incorporate prior shape information. The latter is known to be extremely sensitive to algorithm initialization, and thus, we use a topological model to provide an automatic initialization. In addition, our proposed model can handle objects in images with more complex topological structures, including objects with holes and multiple objects within one image. We demonstrate this on artificially-constructed image datasets from computer vision, as well as real medical image data.
  9. Constructing Shape Spaces From a Topological Perspective (2017)

    Christoph Hofer, Roland Kwitt, Marc Niethammer, Yvonne Höller, Eugen Trinka, Andreas Uhl
    Abstract We consider the task of constructing (metric) shape space(s) from a topological perspective. In particular, we present a generic construction scheme and demonstrate how to apply this scheme when shape is interpreted as the differences that remain after factoring out translation, scaling and rotation. This is achieved by leveraging a recently proposed injective functional transform of 2D/3D (binary) objects, based on persistent homology. The resulting shape space is then equipped with a similarity measure that is (1) by design robust to noise and (2) fulfills all metric axioms. From a practical point of view, analyses of object shape can then be carried out directly on segmented objects obtained from some imaging modality without any preprocessing, such as alignment, smoothing, or landmark selection. We demonstrate the utility of the approach on the problem of distinguishing segmented hippocampi from normal controls vs. patients with Alzheimer’s disease in a challenging setup where volume changes are no longer discriminative.
  10. Fruit Flies and Moduli: Interactions Between Biology and Mathematics (2015)

    Ezra Miller
    Abstract Possibilities for using geometry and topology to analyze statistical problems in biology raise a host of novel questions in geometry, probability, algebra, and combinatorics that demonstrate the power of biology to influence the future of pure mathematics. This expository article is a tour through some biological explorations and their mathematical ramifications. The article starts with evolution of novel topological features in wing veins of fruit flies, which are quantified using the algebraic structure of multiparameter persistent homology. The statistical issues involved highlight mathematical implications of sampling from moduli spaces. These lead to geometric probability on stratified spaces, including the sticky phenomenon for Frechet means and the origin of this mathematical area in the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees.