🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 2 matches in 0.000882s)
  1. The Geometry of Synchronization Problems and Learning Group Actions (2019)

    Tingran Gao, Jacek Brodzki, Sayan Mukherjee
    Abstract We develop a geometric framework, based on the classical theory of fibre bundles, to characterize the cohomological nature of a large class of synchronization-type problems in the context of graph inference and combinatorial optimization. We identify each synchronization problem in topological group G on connected graph ΓΓ\Gamma with a flat principal G-bundle over ΓΓ\Gamma , thus establishing a classification result for synchronization problems using the representation variety of the fundamental group of ΓΓ\Gamma into G. We then develop a twisted Hodge theory on flat vector bundles associated with these flat principal G-bundles, and provide a geometric realization of the graph connection Laplacian as the lowest-degree Hodge Laplacian in the twisted de Rham–Hodge cochain complex. Motivated by these geometric intuitions, we propose to study the problem of learning group actions—partitioning a collection of objects based on the local synchronizability of pairwise correspondence relations—and provide a heuristic synchronization-based algorithm for solving this type of problems. We demonstrate the efficacy of this algorithm on simulated and real datasets.
  2. Predicting Clinical Outcomes in Glioblastoma: An Application of Topological and Functional Data Analysis (2019)

    Lorin Crawford, Anthea Monod, Andrew X. Chen, Sayan Mukherjee, Raúl Rabadán
    Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of human brain cancer that is under active study in the field of cancer biology. Its rapid progression and the relative time cost of obtaining molecular data make other readily available forms of data, such as images, an important resource for actionable measures in patients. Our goal is to use information given by medical images taken from GBM patients in statistical settings. To do this, we design a novel statistic—the smooth Euler characteristic transform (SECT)—that quantifies magnetic resonance images of tumors. Due to its well-defined inner product structure, the SECT can be used in a wider range of functional and nonparametric modeling approaches than other previously proposed topological summary statistics. When applied to a cohort of GBM patients, we find that the SECT is a better predictor of clinical outcomes than both existing tumor shape quantifications and common molecular assays. Specifically, we demonstrate that SECT features alone explain more of the variance in GBM patient survival than gene expression, volumetric features, and morphometric features. The main takeaways from our findings are thus 2-fold. First, they suggest that images contain valuable information that can play an important role in clinical prognosis and other medical decisions. Second, they show that the SECT is a viable tool for the broader study of medical imaging informatics. Supplementary materials for this article, including a standardized description of the materials available for reproducing the work, are available as an online supplement.