🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology
(found 7 matches in 0.001256s)
Topologically Densified Distributions (2020)Christoph Hofer, Florian Graf, Marc Niethammer, Roland Kwitt
AbstractWe study regularization in the context of small sample-size learning with over-parametrized neural networks. Specifically, we shift focus from architectural properties, such as norms on the network weights, to properties of the internal representations before a linear classifier. Specifically, we impose a topological constraint on samples drawn from the probability measure induced in that space. This provably leads to mass concentration effects around the representations of training instances, i.e., a property beneficial for generalization. By leveraging previous work to impose topological constrains in a neural network setting, we provide empirical evidence (across various vision benchmarks) to support our claim for better generalization.
Learning Representations of Persistence Barcodes (2019)Christoph D. Hofer, Roland Kwitt, Marc Niethammer
AbstractWe consider the problem of supervised learning with summary representations of topological features in data. In particular, we focus on persistent homology, the prevalent tool used in topological data analysis. As the summary representations, referred to as barcodes or persistence diagrams, come in the unusual format of multi sets, equipped with computationally expensive metrics, they can not readily be processed with conventional learning techniques. While different approaches to address this problem have been proposed, either in the context of kernel-based learning, or via carefully designed vectorization techniques, it remains an open problem how to leverage advances in representation learning via deep neural networks. Appropriately handling topological summaries as input to neural networks would address the disadvantage of previous strategies which handle this type of data in a task-agnostic manner. In particular, we propose an approach that is designed to learn a task-specific representation of barcodes. In other words, we aim to learn a representation that adapts to the learning problem while, at the same time, preserving theoretical properties (such as stability). This is done by projecting barcodes into a finite dimensional vector space using a collection of parametrized functionals, so called structure elements, for which we provide a generic construction scheme. A theoretical analysis of this approach reveals sufficient conditions to preserve stability, and also shows that different choices of structure elements lead to great differences with respect to their suitability for numerical optimization. When implemented as a neural network input layer, our approach demonstrates compelling performance on various types of problems, including graph classification and eigenvalue prediction, the classification of 2D/3D object shapes and recognizing activities from EEG signals.
Deep Learning With Topological Signatures (2017)Christoph Hofer, Roland Kwitt, Marc Niethammer, Andreas Uhl
Constructing Shape Spaces From a Topological Perspective (2017)Christoph Hofer, Roland Kwitt, Marc Niethammer, Yvonne Höller, Eugen Trinka, Andreas Uhl
AbstractWe consider the task of constructing (metric) shape space(s) from a topological perspective. In particular, we present a generic construction scheme and demonstrate how to apply this scheme when shape is interpreted as the differences that remain after factoring out translation, scaling and rotation. This is achieved by leveraging a recently proposed injective functional transform of 2D/3D (binary) objects, based on persistent homology. The resulting shape space is then equipped with a similarity measure that is (1) by design robust to noise and (2) fulfills all metric axioms. From a practical point of view, analyses of object shape can then be carried out directly on segmented objects obtained from some imaging modality without any preprocessing, such as alignment, smoothing, or landmark selection. We demonstrate the utility of the approach on the problem of distinguishing segmented hippocampi from normal controls vs. patients with Alzheimer’s disease in a challenging setup where volume changes are no longer discriminative.
Statistical Topological Data Analysis - A Kernel Perspective (2015)Roland Kwitt, Stefan Huber, Marc Niethammer, Weili Lin, Ulrich Bauer
AbstractWe consider the problem of statistical computations with persistence diagrams, a summary representation of topological features in data. These diagrams encode persistent homology, a widely used invariant in topological data analysis. While several avenues towards a statistical treatment of the diagrams have been explored recently, we follow an alternative route that is motivated by the success of methods based on the embedding of probability measures into reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. In fact, a positive definite kernel on persistence diagrams has recently been proposed, connecting persistent homology to popular kernel-based learning techniques such as support vector machines. However, important properties of that kernel enabling a principled use in the context of probability measure embeddings remain to be explored. Our contribution is to close this gap by proving universality of a variant of the original kernel, and to demonstrate its effective use in two-sample hypothesis testing on synthetic as well as real-world data.
Topological Descriptors of Histology Images (2014)Nikhil Singh, Heather D. Couture, J. S. Marron, Charles Perou, Marc Niethammer
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to investigate architectural characteristics of cell arrangements in breast cancer histology images. We propose the use of topological data analysis to summarize the geometric information inherent in tumor cell arrangements. Our goal is to use this information as signatures that encode robust summaries of cell arrangements in tumor tissue as captured through histology images. In particular, using ideas from algebraic topology we construct topological descriptors based on cell nucleus segmentations such as persistency charts and Betti sequences. We assess their performance on the task of discriminating the breast cancer subtypes Basal, Luminal A, Luminal B and HER2. We demonstrate that the topological features contain useful complementary information to image-appearance based features that can improve discriminatory performance of classifiers.