(found 5 matches in 0.000994s)
Unexpected Topology of the Temperature Fluctuations in the Cosmic Microwave Background
Pratyush Pranav, Robert J. Adler, Thomas Buchert, Herbert Edelsbrunner, Bernard J. T. Jones, Armin Schwartzman, Hubert Wagner, Rien van de Weygaert
We study the topology generated by the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, as quantified by the number of components and holes, formally given by the Betti numbers, in the growing excursion sets. We compare CMB maps observed by the \textlessi\textgreaterPlanck\textlessi/\textgreater satellite with a thousand simulated maps generated according to the ΛCDM paradigm with Gaussian distributed fluctuations. The comparison is multi-scale, being performed on a sequence of degraded maps with mean pixel separation ranging from 0.05 to 7.33°. The survey of the CMB over 𝕊\textlesssup\textgreater2\textlesssup/\textgreater is incomplete due to obfuscation effects by bright point sources and other extended foreground objects like our own galaxy. To deal with such situations, where analysis in the presence of “masks” is of importance, we introduce the concept of relative homology. The parametric \textlessi\textgreaterχ\textlessi/\textgreater\textlesssup\textgreater2\textlesssup/\textgreater-test shows differences between observations and simulations, yielding \textlessi\textgreaterp\textlessi/\textgreater-values at percent to less than permil levels roughly between 2 and 7°, with the difference in the number of components and holes peaking at more than 3\textlessi\textgreaterσ\textlessi/\textgreater sporadically at these scales. The highest observed deviation between the observations and simulations for \textlessi\textgreaterb\textlessi/\textgreater\textlesssub\textgreater0\textlesssub/\textgreater and \textlessi\textgreaterb\textlessi/\textgreater\textlesssub\textgreater1\textlesssub/\textgreater is approximately between 3\textlessi\textgreaterσ\textlessi/\textgreater and 4\textlessi\textgreaterσ\textlessi/\textgreater at scales of 3–7°. There are reports of mildly unusual behaviour of the Euler characteristic at 3.66° in the literature, computed from independent measurements of the CMB temperature fluctuations by \textlessi\textgreaterPlanck\textlessi/\textgreater’s predecessor, the \textlessi\textgreaterWilkinson\textlessi/\textgreater Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite. The mildly anomalous behaviour of the Euler characteristic is phenomenologically related to the strongly anomalous behaviour of components and holes, or the zeroth and first Betti numbers, respectively. Further, since these topological descriptors show consistent anomalous behaviour over independent measurements of \textlessi\textgreaterPlanck\textlessi/\textgreater and WMAP, instrumental and systematic errors may be an unlikely source. These are also the scales at which the observed maps exhibit low variance compared to the simulations, and approximately the range of scales at which the power spectrum exhibits a dip with respect to the theoretical model. Non-parametric tests show even stronger differences at almost all scales. Crucially, Gaussian simulations based on power-spectrum matching the characteristics of the observed dipped power spectrum are not able to resolve the anomaly. Understanding the origin of the anomalies in the CMB, whether cosmological in nature or arising due to late-time effects, is an extremely challenging task. Regardless, beyond the trivial possibility that this may still be a manifestation of an extreme Gaussian case, these observations, along with the super-horizon scales involved, may motivate the study of primordial non-Gaussianity. Alternative scenarios worth exploring may be models with non-trivial topology, including topological defect models.
The Topology of the Cosmic Web in Terms of Persistent Betti Numbers
Pratyush Pranav, Herbert Edelsbrunner, Rien van de Weygaert, Gert Vegter, Michael Kerber, Bernard J. T. Jones, Mathijs Wintraecken
Abstract. We introduce a multiscale topological description of the Megaparsec web-like cosmic matter distribution. Betti numbers and topological persistence of
The Classification of Endoscopy Images With Persistent Homology
Olga Dunaeva, Herbert Edelsbrunner, Anton Lukyanov, Michael Machin, Daria Malkova, Roman Kuvaev, Sergey Kashin
Aiming at the automatic diagnosis of tumors using narrow band imaging (NBI) magnifying endoscopic (ME) images of the stomach, we combine methods from image processing, topology, geometry, and machine learning to classify patterns into three classes: oval, tubular and irregular. Training the algorithm on a small number of images of each type, we achieve a high rate of correct classifications. The analysis of the learning algorithm reveals that a handful of geometric and topological features are responsible for the overwhelming majority of decisions.
Alpha, Betti and the Megaparsec Universe: On the Topology of the Cosmic Web
Rien Van De Weygaert, Gert Vegter, Herbert Edelsbrunner, Bernard J. T. Jones, Pratyush Pranav, Changbom Park, Wojciech A. Hellwing, Bob Eldering, Nico Kruithof, E. G. P. Bos, Johan Hidding, Job Feldbrugge, Eline Ten Have, Matti Van Engelen, Manuel Caroli, Monique Teillaud
We study the topology of the Megaparsec Cosmic Web in terms of the scale-dependent Betti numbers, which formalize the topological information content of...
Lipschitz Functions Have Lp-Stable Persistence
David Cohen-Steiner, Herbert Edelsbrunner, John Harer, Yuriy Mileyko
We prove two stability results for Lipschitz functions on triangulable, compact metric spaces and consider applications of both to problems in systems biology. Given two functions, the first result is formulated in terms of the Wasserstein distance between their persistence diagrams and the second in terms of their total persistence.