🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 2 matches in 0.002438s)
  1. Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF): Improving the Assessment and Classification of MPN Patients (2022)

    Hosuk Ryou, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Alan Aberdeen, Gillian Grindstaff, Bernadette Stolz, Helen Byrne, Heather A. Harrington, Nikolaos Sousos, Anna L. Godfrey, Claire N. Harrison, Bethan Psaila, Adam J. Mead, Gabrielle Rees, Gareth D. H. Turner, Jens Rittscher, Daniel Royston
    Abstract The detection and grading of fibrosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is an important component of disease classification, prognostication and disease monitoring. However, current fibrosis grading systems are only semi-quantitative and fail to capture sample heterogeneity. To improve the detection, quantitation and representation of reticulin fibrosis, we developed a machine learning (ML) approach using bone marrow trephine (BMT) samples (n = 107) from patients diagnosed with MPN or a reactive / nonneoplastic marrow. The resulting Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF) enhances the detection and monitoring of fibrosis within BMTs, and aids the discrimination of MPN subtypes. When combined with megakaryocyte feature analysis, CIF discriminates between the frequently challenging differential diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and pre-fibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) with high predictive accuracy [area under the curve = 0.94]. CIF also shows significant promise in the identification of MPN patients at risk of disease progression; analysis of samples from 35 patients diagnosed with ET and enrolled in the Primary Thrombocythemia-1 (PT-1) trial identified features predictive of post-ET myelofibrosis (area under the curve = 0.77). In addition to these clinical applications, automated analysis of fibrosis has clear potential to further refine disease classification boundaries and inform future studies of the micro-environmental factors driving disease initiation and progression in MPN and other stem cell disorders. The image analysis methods used to generate CIF can be readily integrated with those of other key morphological features in MPNs, including megakaryocyte morphology, that lie beyond the scope of conventional histological assessment. Key PointsMachine learning enables an objective and quantitative description of reticulin fibrosis within the bone marrow of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN),Automated analysis and Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF) captures heterogeneity within MPN samples and has utility in refined classification and disease monitoringQuantitative fibrosis assessment combined with topological data analysis may help to predict patients at increased risk of progression to post-ET myelofibrosis, and assist in the discrimination of ET and pre-fibrotic PMF (pre-PMF)
  2. The Shape of Cancer Relapse: Topological Data Analysis Predicts Recurrence in Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (2021)

    Salvador Chulián, Bernadette J. Stolz, Álvaro Martínez-Rubio, Cristina Blázquez Goñi, Juan F. Rodríguez Gutiérrez, Teresa Caballero Velázquez, Águeda Molinos Quintana, Manuel Ramírez Orellana, Ana Castillo Robleda, José Luis Fuster Soler, Alfredo Minguela Puras, María Victoria Martínez Sánchez, María Rosa, Víctor M. Pérez-García, Helen Byrne
    Abstract Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (ALL) is the most frequent paediatric cancer. Modern therapies have improved survival rates, but approximately 15-20 % of patients relapse. At present, patients’ risk of relapse are assessed by projecting high-dimensional flow cytometry data onto a subset of biomarkers and manually estimating the shape of this reduced data. Here, we apply methods from topological data analysis (TDA), which quantify shape in data via features such as connected components and loops, to pre-treatment ALL datasets with known outcomes. We combine these fully unsupervised analyses with machine learning to identify features in the pre-treatment data that are prognostic for risk of relapse. We find significant topological differences between relapsing and non-relapsing patients and confirm the predictive power of CD10, CD20, CD38, and CD45. Further, we are able to use the TDA descriptors to predict patients who relapsed. We propose three prognostic pipelines that readily extend to other haematological malignancies. Teaser Topology reveals features in flow cytometry data which predict relapse of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia