🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 10 matches in 0.002154s)
  1. Relational Persistent Homology for Multispecies Data With Application to the Tumor Microenvironment (2023)

    Bernadette J. Stolz, Jagdeep Dhesi, Joshua A. Bull, Heather A. Harrington, Helen M. Byrne, Iris H. R. Yoon
    Abstract Topological data analysis (TDA) is an active field of mathematics for quantifying shape in complex data. Standard methods in TDA such as persistent homology (PH) are typically focused on the analysis of data consisting of a single entity (e.g., cells or molecular species). However, state-of-the-art data collection techniques now generate exquisitely detailed multispecies data, prompting a need for methods that can examine and quantify the relations among them. Such heterogeneous data types arise in many contexts, ranging from biomedical imaging, geospatial analysis, to species ecology. Here, we propose two methods for encoding spatial relations among different data types that are based on Dowker complexes and Witness complexes. We apply the methods to synthetic multispecies data of a tumor microenvironment and analyze topological features that capture relations between different cell types, e.g., blood vessels, macrophages, tumor cells, and necrotic cells. We demonstrate that relational topological features can extract biological insight, including the dominant immune cell phenotype (an important predictor of patient prognosis) and the parameter regimes of a data-generating model. The methods provide a quantitative perspective on the relational analysis of multispecies spatial data, overcome the limits of traditional PH, and are readily computable.
  2. Topological Descriptors for Coral Reef Resilience Using a Stochastic Spatial Model (2022)

    Robert A. McDonald, Rosanna Neuhausler, Martin Robinson, Laurel G. Larsen, Heather A. Harrington, Maria Bruna
    Abstract A complex interplay between species governs the evolution of spatial patterns in ecology. An open problem in the biological sciences is characterizing spatio-temporal data and understanding how changes at the local scale affect global dynamics/behavior. We present a toolkit of multiscale methods and use them to analyze coral reef resilience and dynamics.Here, we extend a well-studied temporal mathematical model of coral reef dynamics to include stochastic and spatial interactions and then generate data to study different ecological scenarios. We present descriptors to characterize patterns in heterogeneous spatio-temporal data surpassing spatially averaged measures. We apply these descriptors to simulated coral data and demonstrate the utility of two topological data analysis techniques--persistent homology and zigzag persistence--for characterizing the spatiotemporal evolution of reefs and generating insight into mechanisms of reef resilience. We show that the introduction of local competition between species leads to the appearance of coral clusters in the reef. Furthermore, we use our analyses to distinguish the temporal dynamics that stem from different initial configurations of coral, showing that the neighborhood composition of coral sites determines their long-term survival. Finally, we use zigzag persistence to quantify spatial behavior in the metastable regime as the level of fish grazing on algae varies and determine which spatial configurations protect coral from extinction in different environments.
  3. Barcodes Distinguish Morphology of Neuronal Tauopathy (2022)

    David Beers, Despoina Goniotaki, Diane P. Hanger, Alain Goriely, Heather A. Harrington
    Abstract The geometry of neurons is known to be important for their functions. Hence, neurons are often classified by their morphology. Two recent methods, persistent homology and the topological morphology descriptor, assign a morphology descriptor called a barcode to a neuron equipped with a given function, such as the Euclidean distance from the root of the neuron. These barcodes can be converted into matrices called persistence images, which can then be averaged across groups. We show that when the defining function is the path length from the root, both the topological morphology descriptor and persistent homology are equivalent. We further show that persistence images arising from the path length procedure provide an interpretable summary of neuronal morphology. We introduce \topological morphology functions\, a class of functions similar to Sholl functions, that can be recovered from the associated topological morphology descriptor. To demonstrate this topological approach, we compare healthy cortical and hippocampal mouse neurons to those affected by progressive tauopathy. We find a significant difference in the morphology of healthy neurons and those with a tauopathy at a postsymptomatic age. We use persistence images to conclude that the diseased group tends to have neurons with shorter branches as well as fewer branches far from the soma.
  4. Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF): Improving the Assessment and Classification of MPN Patients (2022)

    Hosuk Ryou, Korsuk Sirinukunwattana, Alan Aberdeen, Gillian Grindstaff, Bernadette Stolz, Helen Byrne, Heather A. Harrington, Nikolaos Sousos, Anna L. Godfrey, Claire N. Harrison, Bethan Psaila, Adam J. Mead, Gabrielle Rees, Gareth D. H. Turner, Jens Rittscher, Daniel Royston
    Abstract The detection and grading of fibrosis in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) is an important component of disease classification, prognostication and disease monitoring. However, current fibrosis grading systems are only semi-quantitative and fail to capture sample heterogeneity. To improve the detection, quantitation and representation of reticulin fibrosis, we developed a machine learning (ML) approach using bone marrow trephine (BMT) samples (n = 107) from patients diagnosed with MPN or a reactive / nonneoplastic marrow. The resulting Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF) enhances the detection and monitoring of fibrosis within BMTs, and aids the discrimination of MPN subtypes. When combined with megakaryocyte feature analysis, CIF discriminates between the frequently challenging differential diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET) and pre-fibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF) with high predictive accuracy [area under the curve = 0.94]. CIF also shows significant promise in the identification of MPN patients at risk of disease progression; analysis of samples from 35 patients diagnosed with ET and enrolled in the Primary Thrombocythemia-1 (PT-1) trial identified features predictive of post-ET myelofibrosis (area under the curve = 0.77). In addition to these clinical applications, automated analysis of fibrosis has clear potential to further refine disease classification boundaries and inform future studies of the micro-environmental factors driving disease initiation and progression in MPN and other stem cell disorders. The image analysis methods used to generate CIF can be readily integrated with those of other key morphological features in MPNs, including megakaryocyte morphology, that lie beyond the scope of conventional histological assessment. Key PointsMachine learning enables an objective and quantitative description of reticulin fibrosis within the bone marrow of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN),Automated analysis and Continuous Indexing of Fibrosis (CIF) captures heterogeneity within MPN samples and has utility in refined classification and disease monitoringQuantitative fibrosis assessment combined with topological data analysis may help to predict patients at increased risk of progression to post-ET myelofibrosis, and assist in the discrimination of ET and pre-fibrotic PMF (pre-PMF)
  5. Topological Data Analysis Distinguishes Parameter Regimes in the Anderson-Chaplain Model of Angiogenesis (2021)

    John T. Nardini, Bernadette J. Stolz, Kevin B. Flores, Heather A. Harrington, Helen M. Byrne
    Abstract Angiogenesis is the process by which blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels. It plays a key role in many biological processes, including embryonic development and wound healing, and contributes to many diseases including cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The structure of the resulting vessel networks determines their ability to deliver nutrients and remove waste products from biological tissues. Here we simulate the Anderson-Chaplain model of angiogenesis at different parameter values and quantify the vessel architectures of the resulting synthetic data. Specifically, we propose a topological data analysis (TDA) pipeline for systematic analysis of the model. TDA is a vibrant and relatively new field of computational mathematics for studying the shape of data. We compute topological and standard descriptors of model simulations generated by different parameter values. We show that TDA of model simulation data stratifies parameter space into regions with similar vessel morphology. The methodologies proposed here are widely applicable to other synthetic and experimental data including wound healing, development, and plant biology.
  6. Geometric Anomaly Detection in Data (2020)

    Bernadette J. Stolz, Jared Tanner, Heather A. Harrington, Vidit Nanda
    Abstract The quest for low-dimensional models which approximate high-dimensional data is pervasive across the physical, natural, and social sciences. The dominant paradigm underlying most standard modeling techniques assumes that the data are concentrated near a single unknown manifold of relatively small intrinsic dimension. Here, we present a systematic framework for detecting interfaces and related anomalies in data which may fail to satisfy the manifold hypothesis. By computing the local topology of small regions around each data point, we are able to partition a given dataset into disjoint classes, each of which can be individually approximated by a single manifold. Since these manifolds may have different intrinsic dimensions, local topology discovers singular regions in data even when none of the points have been sampled precisely from the singularities. We showcase this method by identifying the intersection of two surfaces in the 24-dimensional space of cyclo-octane conformations and by locating all of the self-intersections of a Henneberg minimal surface immersed in 3-dimensional space. Due to the local nature of the topological computations, the algorithmic burden of performing such data stratification is readily distributable across several processors.
  7. Persistent Homology of Time-Dependent Functional Networks Constructed From Coupled Time Series (2017)

    Bernadette J. Stolz, Heather A. Harrington, Mason A. Porter
    Abstract We use topological data analysis to study “functional networks” that we construct from time-series data from both experimental and synthetic sources. We use persistent homology with a weight rank clique filtration to gain insights into these functional networks, and we use persistence landscapes to interpret our results. Our first example uses time-series output from networks of coupled Kuramoto oscillators. Our second example consists of biological data in the form of functional magnetic resonance imaging data that were acquired from human subjects during a simple motor-learning task in which subjects were monitored for three days during a five-day period. With these examples, we demonstrate that (1) using persistent homology to study functional networks provides fascinating insights into their properties and (2) the position of the features in a filtration can sometimes play a more vital role than persistence in the interpretation of topological features, even though conventionally the latter is used to distinguish between signal and noise. We find that persistent homology can detect differences in synchronization patterns in our data sets over time, giving insight both on changes in community structure in the networks and on increased synchronization between brain regions that form loops in a functional network during motor learning. For the motor-learning data, persistence landscapes also reveal that on average the majority of changes in the network loops take place on the second of the three days of the learning process.
  8. Topological Data Analysis of Contagion Maps for Examining Spreading Processes on Networks (2015)

    Dane Taylor, Florian Klimm, Heather A. Harrington, Miroslav Kramár, Konstantin Mischaikow, Mason A. Porter, Peter J. Mucha
    Abstract Social and biological contagions are influenced by the spatial embeddedness of networks. Historically, many epidemics spread as a wave across part of the Earth’s surface; however, in modern contagions long-range edges—for example, due to airline transportation or communication media—allow clusters of a contagion to appear in distant locations. Here we study the spread of contagions on networks through a methodology grounded in topological data analysis and nonlinear dimension reduction. We construct ‘contagion maps’ that use multiple contagions on a network to map the nodes as a point cloud. By analysing the topology, geometry and dimensionality of manifold structure in such point clouds, we reveal insights to aid in the modelling, forecast and control of spreading processes. Our approach highlights contagion maps also as a viable tool for inferring low-dimensional structure in networks.