🍩 Database of Original & Non-Theoretical Uses of Topology

(found 11 matches in 0.002346s)
  1. Pattern Characterization Using Topological Data Analysis: Application to Piezo Vibration Striking Treatment (2023)

    Max M. Chumley, Melih C. Yesilli, Jisheng Chen, Firas A. Khasawneh, Yang Guo
    Abstract Quantifying patterns in visual or tactile textures provides important information about the process or phenomena that generated these patterns. In manufacturing, these patterns can be intentionally introduced as a design feature, or they can be a byproduct of a specific process. Since surface texture has significant impact on the mechanical properties and the longevity of the workpiece, it is important to develop tools for quantifying surface patterns and, when applicable, comparing them to their nominal counterparts. While existing tools may be able to indicate the existence of a pattern, they typically do not provide more information about the pattern structure, or how much it deviates from a nominal pattern. Further, prior works do not provide automatic or algorithmic approaches for quantifying other pattern characteristics such as depths’ consistency, and variations in the pattern motifs at different level sets. This paper leverages persistent homology from Topological Data Analysis (TDA) to derive noise-robust scores for quantifying motifs’ depth and roundness in a pattern. Specifically, sublevel persistence is used to derive scores that quantify the consistency of indentation depths at any level set in Piezo Vibration Striking Treatment (PVST) surfaces. Moreover, we combine sublevel persistence with the distance transform to quantify the consistency of the indentation radii, and to compare them with the nominal ones. Although the tool in our PVST experiments had a semi-spherical profile, we present a generalization of our approach to tools/motifs of arbitrary shapes thus making our method applicable to other pattern-generating manufacturing processes.
  2. Exploring Surface Texture Quantification in Piezo Vibration Striking Treatment (PVST) Using Topological Measures (2022)

    Melih C. Yesilli, Max M. Chumley, Jisheng Chen, Firas A. Khasawneh, Yang Guo
    Abstract Abstract. Surface texture influences wear and tribological properties of manufactured parts, and it plays a critical role in end-user products. Therefore, quantifying the order or structure of a manufactured surface provides important information on the quality and life expectancy of the product. Although texture can be intentionally introduced to enhance aesthetics or to satisfy a design function, sometimes it is an inevitable byproduct of surface treatment processes such as Piezo Vibration Striking Treatment (PVST). Measures of order for surfaces have been characterized using statistical, spectral, and geometric approaches. For nearly hexagonal lattices, topological tools have also been used to measure the surface order. This paper explores utilizing tools from Topological Data Analysis for measuring surface texture. We compute measures of order based on optical digital microscope images of surfaces treated using PVST. These measures are applied to the grid obtained from estimating the centers of tool impacts, and they quantify the grid’s deviations from the nominal one. Our results show that TDA provides a convenient framework for characterization of pattern type that bypasses some limitations of existing tools such as difficult manual processing of the data and the need for an expert user to analyze and interpret the surface images.
  3. Transfer Learning for Autonomous Chatter Detection in Machining (2022)

    Melih C. Yesilli, Firas A. Khasawneh, Brian P. Mann
    Abstract Large-amplitude chatter vibrations are one of the most important phenomena in machining processes. It is often detrimental in cutting operations causing a poor surface finish and decreased tool life. Therefore, chatter detection using machine learning has been an active research area over the last decade. Three challenges can be identified in applying machine learning for chatter detection at large in industry: an insufficient understanding of the universality of chatter features across different processes, the need for automating feature extraction, and the existence of limited data for each specific workpiece-machine tool combination, e.g., when machining one-off products. These three challenges can be grouped under the umbrella of transfer learning, which is concerned with studying how knowledge gained from one setting can be leveraged to obtain information in new settings. This paper studies automating chatter detection by evaluating transfer learning of prominent as well as novel chatter detection methods. We investigate chatter classification accuracy using a variety of features extracted from turning and milling experiments with different cutting configurations. The studied methods include Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Power Spectral Density (PSD), the Auto-correlation Function (ACF), and decomposition based tools such as Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) and Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD). We also examine more recent approaches based on Topological Data Analysis (TDA) and similarity measures of time series based on Discrete Time Warping (DTW). We evaluate transfer learning potential of each approach by training and testing both within and across the turning and milling data sets. Four supervised classification algorithms are explored: support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression, random forest classification, and gradient boosting. In addition to accuracy, we also comment on the automation potential of feature extraction for each approach which is integral to creating autonomous manufacturing centers. Our results show that carefully chosen time-frequency features can lead to high classification accuracies albeit at the cost of requiring manual pre-processing and the tagging of an expert user. On the other hand, we found that the TDA and DTW approaches can provide accuracies and F1-scores on par with the time-frequency methods without the need for manual preprocessing via completely automatic pipelines. Further, we discovered that the DTW approach outperforms all other methods when trained using the milling data and tested on the turning data. Therefore, TDA and DTW approaches may be preferred over the time-frequency-based approaches for fully automated chatter detection schemes. DTW and TDA also can be more advantageous when pooling data from either limited workpiece-machine tool combinations, or from small data sets of one-off processes.
  4. Data-Driven and Automatic Surface Texture Analysis Using Persistent Homology (2021)

    Melih C. Yesilli, Firas A. Khasawneh
    Abstract Surface roughness plays an important role in analyzing engineering surfaces. It quantifies the surface topography and can be used to determine whether the resulting surface finish is acceptable or not. Nevertheless, while several existing tools and standards are available for computing surface roughness, these methods rely heavily on user input thus slowing down the analysis and increasing manufacturing costs. Therefore, fast and automatic determination of the roughness level is essential to avoid costs resulting from surfaces with unacceptable finish, and user-intensive analysis. In this study, we propose a Topological Data Analysis (TDA) based approach to classify the roughness level of synthetic surfaces using both their areal images and profiles. We utilize persistent homology from TDA to generate persistence diagrams that encapsulate information on the shape of the surface. We then obtain feature matrices for each surface or profile using Carlsson coordinates, persistence images, and template functions. We compare our results to two widely used methods in the literature: Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Gaussian filtering. The results show that our approach yields mean accuracies as high as 97%. We also show that, in contrast to existing surface analysis tools, our TDA-based approach is fully automatable and provides adaptive feature extraction.
  5. Using Zigzag Persistent Homology to Detect Hopf Bifurcations in Dynamical Systems (2020)

    Sarah Tymochko, Elizabeth Munch, Firas A. Khasawneh
    Abstract Bifurcations in dynamical systems characterize qualitative changes in the system behavior. Therefore, their detection is important because they can signal the transition from normal system operation to imminent failure. While standard persistent homology has been used in this setting, it usually requires analyzing a collection of persistence diagrams, which in turn drives up the computational cost considerably. Using zigzag persistence, we can capture topological changes in the state space of the dynamical system in only one persistence diagram. Here we present Bifurcations using ZigZag (BuZZ), a one-step method to study and detect bifurcations using zigzag persistence. The BuZZ method is successfully able to detect this type of behavior in two synthetic examples as well as an example dynamical system.
  6. Dynamic State Analysis of a Driven Magnetic Pendulum Using Ordinal Partition Networks and Topological Data Analysis (2020)

    Audun Myers, Firas A. Khasawneh
    Abstract Abstract. The use of complex networks for time series analysis has recently shown to be useful as a tool for detecting dynamic state changes for a wide variety of applications. In this work, we implement the commonly used ordinal partition network to transform a time series into a network for detecting these state changes for the simple magnetic pendulum. The time series that we used are obtained experimentally from a base-excited magnetic pendulum apparatus, and numerically from the corresponding governing equations. The magnetic pendulum provides a relatively simple, non-linear example demonstrating transitions from periodic to chaotic motion with the variation of system parameters. For our method, we implement persistent homology, a shape measuring tool from Topological Data Analysis (TDA), to summarize the shape of the resulting ordinal partition networks as a tool for detecting state changes. We show that this network analysis tool provides a clear distinction between periodic and chaotic time series. Another contribution of this work is the successful application of the networks-TDA pipeline, for the first time, to signals from non-autonomous nonlinear systems. This opens the door for our approach to be used as an automatic design tool for studying the effect of design parameters on the resulting system response. Other uses of this approach include fault detection from sensor signals in a wide variety of engineering operations.
  7. Chatter Diagnosis in Milling Using Supervised Learning and Topological Features Vector (2019)

    Melih C. Yesilli, Sarah Tymochko, Firas A. Khasawneh, Elizabeth Munch
    Abstract Chatter detection has become a prominent subject of interest due to its effect on cutting tool life, surface finish and spindle of machine tool. Most of the existing methods in chatter detection literature are based on signal processing and signal decomposition. In this study, we use topological features of data simulating cutting tool vibrations, combined with four supervised machine learning algorithms to diagnose chatter in the milling process. Persistence diagrams, a method of representing topological features, are not easily used in the context of machine learning, so they must be transformed into a form that is more amenable. Specifically, we will focus on two different methods for featurizing persistence diagrams, Carlsson coordinates and template functions. In this paper, we provide classification results for simulated data from various cutting configurations, including upmilling and downmilling, in addition to the same data with some added noise. Our results show that Carlsson Coordinates and Template Functions yield accuracies as high as 96% and 95%, respectively. We also provide evidence that these topological methods are noise robust descriptors for chatter detection.
  8. Chatter Classification in Turning Using Machine Learning and Topological Data Analysis (2018)

    Firas A. Khasawneh, Elizabeth Munch, Jose A. Perea
    Abstract Chatter identification and detection in machining processes has been an active area of research in the past two decades. Part of the challenge in studying chatter is that machining equations that describe its occurrence are often nonlinear delay differential equations. The majority of the available tools for chatter identification rely on defining a metric that captures the characteristics of chatter, and a threshold that signals its occurrence. The difficulty in choosing these parameters can be somewhat alleviated by utilizing machine learning techniques. However, even with a successful classification algorithm, the transferability of typical machine learning methods from one data set to another remains very limited. In this paper we combine supervised machine learning with Topological Data Analysis (TDA) to obtain a descriptor of the process which can detect chatter. The features we use are derived from the persistence diagram of an attractor reconstructed from the time series via Takens embedding. We test the approach using deterministic and stochastic turning models, where the stochasticity is introduced via the cutting coefficient term. Our results show a 97% successful classification rate on the deterministic model labeled by the stability diagram obtained using the spectral element method. The features gleaned from the deterministic model are then utilized for characterization of chatter in a stochastic turning model where there are very limited analysis methods.
  9. Topological Data Analysis for True Step Detection in Periodic Piecewise Constant Signals (2018)

    Firas A. Khasawneh, Elizabeth Munch
    Abstract This paper introduces a simple yet powerful approach based on topological data analysis for detecting true steps in a periodic, piecewise constant (PWC) signal. The signal is a two-state square wave with randomly varying in-between-pulse spacing, subject to spurious steps at the rising or falling edges which we call digital ringing. We use persistent homology to derive mathematical guarantees for the resulting change detection which enables accurate identification and counting of the true pulses. The approach is tested using both synthetic and experimental data obtained using an engine lathe instrumented with a laser tachometer. The described algorithm enables accurate and automatic calculations of the spindle speed without any choice of parameters. The results are compared with the frequency and sequency methods of the Fourier and Walsh–Hadamard transforms, respectively. Both our approach and the Fourier analysis yield comparable results for pulses with regular spacing and digital ringing while the latter causes large errors using the Walsh–Hadamard method. Further, the described approach significantly outperforms the frequency/sequency analyses when the spacing between the peaks is varied. We discuss generalizing the approach to higher dimensional PWC signals, although using this extension remains an interesting question for future research.
  10. Chatter Detection in Turning Using Persistent Homology (2016)

    Firas A. Khasawneh, Elizabeth Munch
    Abstract This paper describes a new approach for ascertaining the stability of stochastic dynamical systems in their parameter space by examining their time series using topological data analysis (TDA). We illustrate the approach using a nonlinear delayed model that describes the tool oscillations due to self-excited vibrations in turning. Each time series is generated using the Euler-Maruyama method and a corresponding point cloud is obtained using the Takens embedding. The point cloud can then be analyzed using a tool from TDA known as persistent homology. The results of this study show that the described approach can be used for analyzing datasets of delay dynamical systems generated both from numerical simulation and experimental data. The contributions of this paper include presenting for the first time a topological approach for investigating the stability of a class of nonlinear stochastic delay equations, and introducing a new application of TDA to machining processes.